Monthly Archives: December 2015

Sputtering Targets Plasma Etching

Sputtering Targets Plasma Etching

What is Sputtering?

Sputtering Targets Plasma Etching is a process in which particles are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles ie. plasma high energtic. In which when the kinetic energy of the incoming particles is much higher than conventional thermal energies. This process can lead, during prolonged ion or plasma bombardment of a material, to significant erosion of materials. Sputtering is a technique used to deposit thin films of a material onto a surface. by first creating a gaseous plasma and then accelerating the ions from this plasma into some source material, the source material is then eroded by the arriving ions via energy transfer and is ejected in the form of neutral particles due to elastic or inelastic celliscon neutral particles – either individual atoms, clusters of atoms or molecules.

Sputtering Targets Plasma Etching

Sputtering Targets Plasma Etching

 

Plasma Etching

Sputtering Targets For Plasma Etching is a plasma process which is used to remove small amounts of material from a surface. It is the only viable method for a lot of applications because the requirement of anisotropic etching. Anisotropic etching is etching in just one axis for example right down into a trace without etching the side walls. Plasma etching can also be selective which means that it removes one material but leaves the other unaffected. Sputtering is removal of atoms caused by high energetic ions hitting the surface, this process is highly anisotropic. Chemical etching is isotropic. Ion energy-driven etching occurs in plasmas were both chemical etchants and high energy ions are supplied to the surface. Ion energy-driven etching has a much higher etch rate then chemical etching and sputtering alone. These results in a anisotropic etching with high etch rate.

Sputtering Targets Plasma Etching: Applications In Thin Films

The modern methods of plasma-assisted physical vapor deposition techniques provide great flexibility for designing films with specific chemistry and micro structure, leading to coatings with unique properties. Ceramic coatings deposited on metallic substrates have shown excellent improvement of the surface properties, such as a low friction coefficient and a high degree of hardness with associated good wear resistance and also corrosion resistance to aggressive environments  In general, it may be observed that the residual compressive stresses, determined using the curvature method, and increased with the energy parameter, pinholes or defects are usually localized at the grain boundaries, which are defined by the crystal growth process, which consequently models the final film structure.

Sputtering Targets Plasma Etching: Applications

Sputtering Targets For Plasma Etching coating technology is used for thin film deposition of target material on the desired surface called substrate. In sputter coating a target is bombarded with heavy gas atoms. Metal atoms ejected from the target by the ionized gas cross the plasma to deposit onto any surface, and this process is used to form a desired coating on the substrate. physical vapor deposition technique used in application such as  optoelectronics (Solar cell, photodiodes, liquid crystal display-LCD, electronics). The memory technology(For E.g. laser discs, magneto-optical Media), the surface protection ( tools, machine parts)  or the barrier technology( diffusion barries for e.g. in flexible packing).

The Sputtering Targets For Plasma Etching market based on material type (pure material, alloy and compounds) by substrate type (Ceramic, Metal & dielectric, Glass, Plastic, Textile and Others, Automotive & Transport, Architecture, Microelectronics, Data storage, Electronics, Display, Energy, Lighting, Medical, Defense & Security, Optical Coating, tribological coating, decorative coating and others).

Sputtering Targets Plasma Etching

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Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical Applications

Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical Applications

Super Activated Carbon Nanotubes Drug Delivery

CNTs can be used as drug carriers to treat tumours. The efficacy of anticancer drugs used alone is restrained not only by their systemic toxicity and narrow therapeutic window but also by drug resistance and limited cellular penetration. Because CNTs can easily across the cytoplasm membrane and nuclear membrane, anticancer drug transported by this vehicle will be liberated in situ with intact concentration and consequently, its action in the tumour cell will be higher than that administered alone by traditional therapy. Thus, the development of efficient delivery systems with the ability to enhance cellular uptake of existing potent drugs is needed. The high aspect ratio of carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications offers great advantages over the existing delivery vectors, because the high surface area provides multiple attachment sites for drugs. Many anticancer drugs have been conjugated with functionalized CNTs and successfully tested in vitro and in vivo such as epirubicin, doxorubicin, cisplatin, methotrexate, quercetin, and Paclitaxel. For avoiding the harmful effect of anticancer drug on healthy organs and cells, has linked epirubicin with a magnetic CNTs complex obtained by fixing a layer of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on the surface of the nanotubes with necklace-like type and on the tips of shortened MWCNTs. The used the epirubicin magnetic CNTs complex for lymphatic tumour targeting. Such a system can be guided by an externally placed magnet to target regional lymphatic nodes. Chemotherapeutic agents can be bound to a complex formed by CNT and antibody against antigen over expressed on the cancerous cell surface. The attraction of antigen-antibody, the CNTs can be taken up by the tumour cell only before the anticancer drug is cleaved off CNTs; thus, targeting delivery is realized.

carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications

carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications

 

Carbon Nanotubes for Gene Therapy by DNA Delivery

carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications is an approach to correct a defective gene which is the cause of some chronic or hereditary diseases by introducing DNA molecule into the cell nucleus. Some delivery systems for DNA transfer include liposome’s, cationic lipids and nanoparticles such as CNTs recently discovered. When bound to SWCNTs, DNA probes are protected from enzymatic cleavage and interference from nucleic acid binding proteins, consequently, DNA-SWCNT complex exhibits superior bio stability and increases self-delivery capability of DNA in comparison to DNA used alone. Indeed, stable complexes between plasmid DNA and cationic CNTs have demonstrated the enhancement of gene therapeutic capacity compared with naked DNA. CNTs conjugated with DNA were found to release DNA before it was destroyed by cells defence system, boosting transfect ion significantly. The use of CNTs as gene therapy vectors has shown that these engineered structures can effectively transport the genes inside mammalian cells and keep them intact because the CNT-gene complex has conserved the ability to express proteins. Pantarotto and co-workers have developed novel functionalized SWCNT-DNA complexes and reported high DNA expression compared with naked DNA.

carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications

Cell and organ transplantation and of CNT chemistry in recent years have contributed to the sustained development of CNT-based tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Carbon nanotubes may be the best tissue engineering candidate among numerous other materials such as natural and synthetic polymers for tissue scaffolds since this nanomaterial is biocompatible, resistant to biodegradation, and can be functionalized with biomolecules for enhancing the organ regeneration. In this field, CNTs can be used as additives to reinforce the mechanical strength of tissue scaffolding and conductivity by incorporating with the host’s body. Other tissue engineering applications of CNTs concerning cell tracking and labeling, sensing cellular behaviour, and enhancing tissue matrices are also studied recently. For example, it has been reported that CNTs can effectively enhance bone tissue regenerations in mice and neurogenic cell differentiation by embryonic stem cells in vitro.

carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications

A biosensor is an analytical device, used for the detection of an analyse that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector. The use of CNTs in bio sensing nanotechnology is recent and represents a most exciting application area for therapeutic monitoring and in vitro and in vivo diagnostics. For example, coupled CNTs with glucose-oxidise biosensors for blood sugar control in diabetic patient with higher accuracy and simpler manipulation than biosensors used alone. Other CNT-enzyme biosensors such as CNT-based dehydrogenase biosensors or peroxidase and catalyse biosensors have also been developed for different therapeutic monitoring and diagnostics. Electrical detection of DNA, the assay sensitivity was higher with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme linked to CNTs than with ALP alone. The sensitivity of the assay using SWCNT-DNA sensor obtained by integration of SWCNTs with single-strand DNAs (ssDNA) was considerably higher than traditional fluorescent and hybridization assays. This CNT-biosensor-linked assay can be modified for antigen detection by using specific antibody-antigen recognition. Thus, it could provide a fast and simple solution for molecular diagnosis in pathologies where molecular markers exist, such as DNA or protein. CNTs have been assayed to detect some organophosphoric pesticides by using acetylcholine esterase immobilized on CNT surface with electrochemical detection. Owing to their length scale and unique structure, the use of CNTs as biosensor vehicle is highly recommended to develop sensitive techniques for diagnostics and analyses from the laboratory to the clinic.

Carbon Nanotubes for Infection Therapy

carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications Because of the resistance of infectious agents against numerous antiviral, antibacterial drugs or due to certain vaccine inefficacy in the body, CNTs have been assayed to resolve these problems. Functionalized CNTs have been demonstrated to be able to act as carriers for antimicrobial agents such as the antifungal amphotericin. CNTs can attach covalently to amphotericin B and transport it into mammalian cells. This conjugate has reduced the antifungal toxicity about 40% as compared to the free drug. Our group has successfully combined an antimicrobial agent Pazufloxacin mediate with amino-MWCNT with high adsorption and will be applied to experimental assays for infection treatment.
Functionalized CNTs can also act as vaccine delivery procedures. The linkage of a bacterial or viral antigen with CNTs permits of keeping intact antigen conformation, thereby, inducing antibody response with the right specificity. The fixation of functionalized CNTs with B and T cell peptide epitomes can generate a multivalent system able to induce a strong immune response, thereby becoming a good candidate for vaccine delivery. Thus, functionalized CNTs can act a good carrier system for the delivery of candidate vaccine antigens. Besides, CNTs themselves might have antimicrobial activity since bacteria may be adsorbed onto the surfaces of CNTs, such as the case of E. coli. The antibacterial effect was attributed to carbon nanotube-induced oxidation of the intracellular antioxidant glutathione, resulting in increased oxidative stress on the bacterial cells and eventual cell death.

By Antitumor Immunotherapy

carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications used as carriers can be effectively applied in antitumor immunotherapy. This therapeutic consists of stimulating the patient’s immune system to attack the malignant tumour cells. This stimulation can be achieved by the administration of a cancer vaccine or a therapeutic antibody as drug. Some authors have validated the use of carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications as vaccine delivery tools. The conjugate of MWCNTs and tumour lysine protein (tumour cell vaccine) can considerably and specifically enhance the efficacy of antitumor immunotherapy in a mouse bearing the H22 liver tumour. In vitro, the conjugate of CNTs and tumour immunogens can act as natural antigen presenting cells (such as mature dendrite cells) by bringing tumour antigens to immune effectors’ T cells; this action is due to the high avidity of antigen on the surface and the negative charge.

carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications

carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications

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Diamond Nanopowder Nanoparticles

Diamond Nanopowder/Nanoparticles

Diamond Nanopowder/ Nanoparticles

Diamond Nanopowder/ Nanoparticles are single crystal diamond that range anywhere from 5_500nm. Diamond is the hardest materials. Diamonds has been considered for use in several application nanoparticles are gray spherical high surface area carbon.

Diamond Nanopowder Nanoparticles

Diamond Nanopowder Nanoparticles

 

Properties

  1. Appearance: Grey nanopowder
  2. Electrical Resistivity
  3. Relative magnetic susceptibility
  4. Initial oxidization temperature
  5. Morphology: spherical

Applications

  1. Thermal
  2. Electrochemical
  3. Dental care
  4. Hair and nail care
  5. Nanodiamonds between biocompatibility and cytotoxicity
  6. High precision polishing
  7. Additives in Polymer
  8. Biosensors
  9. Integrated circuit substrates

 

Drug delivery

Diamond Nanopowder Nanoparticles have attracted remarkable scientific attention for bioimaging and therapeutic applications owing to their low toxicity with many cell lines, convenient surface properties and stable fluorescence without photobleaching. Nanodiamonds has been explored for bioimaging and drug delivery tracing. The interest in nanodiamonds’ biological/medical application appears to be continuing with enhanced focus. The aims of these materials in drug delivery include specific drug targeting/delivery, reduced toxicity while maintaining therapeutic effects, and the development of new and safer medicines. The nanoparticles are developed for bioimaging or drug delivery and are used as a carrier or imaging agent.

Thermal Applications

The high thermal conductivity can be employed for Diamond Nanopowder Nanoparticles applications as well. Diamond Nanopowder Nanoparticles is a suitable additive for coolants to improve the thermal conductivity of cooling media. An addition of only 0.3% to cooling oils for large transistors causes a 20% growth of thermal conductivity. Diamond nanoparticles efficiently enhances material’s ability to dissipate heat. Consequently, using diamond nanoparticles in pastes, glues and substrates provides an exceptional opportunity of avoiding burnout, increasing speed of active elements, reducing the size of devices, and increasing their reliability and durability.

 Electrochemical Applications

Due to its physicochemical stability, large electrochemical potential window, and chemical sensitivity diamond is an excellent candidate for electrochemical applications. Diamond nanoparticles show the most stable response among electrodes by far, and do not require extensive pretreatment to regenerate the electroactive surface. ND electrodes/microelectrodes have been applied to biological system as biosensors.

Dental care

Diamond Nanopowder Nanoparticles may be formulated as a dental material. The dental material can be formulated for use as a filling, veneer, reconstruction. The Diamond Nanoparticles  particles can provide additional mechanical strength, as well as an appearance that approximates natural enamel. Alternatively, the remedial healthcare composition can be formulated as toothpaste including an acceptable carrier and a plurality of Diamond Nanoparticles particles.  Diamond Nanoparticles added toothpaste has another advantage, as Diamond Nanoparticles is known to cure gum disease.

Hair and nail care

Shampoo can include an acceptable carrier and Diamond Nanoparticles particles. Suitable bubbling agents can be included to increase contact of unsaturated NDs with a biological material. The effect of NDs in skin cleansers, deodorants, shampoos, soaps, toothpaste, etc. Another cosmetic ND composition can be formulated as a nail polish, eyeliner, lip-gloss, or exfoliant. ND particles can also improve the durability of the applied nail compositions. Specifically, NDs can provide increased resistance to chipping and wear, e.g. typically a ND nail polish can last from about three to ten time longer than typical nail lacquer formulations.

Nanodiamonds between biocompatibility and cytotoxicity

Their unique photoluminescence and magnetic properties, Diamond nanoparticles are promising for biomedical imaging and therapeutic applications. These biomedical applications will hardly be realized unless the potential hazards of Diamond Nanopowder Nanoparticles to humans and other biological systems are ascertained. The excellent biocompatibility of NDs in a variety of cell lines without noticeable cytotoxicity. These findings should have important implications for future applications of NDs in biological applications.

Safe gene therapy with NDs

Gene therapy holds promise in the treatment of a myriad of diseases, including cancer, heart disease and diabetes. However, developing a scalable system for delivering genes to cells both efficiently and safely has been challenging. The power of Diamond Nanopowder Nanoparticles as a novel gene delivery technology that combines key properties in one approach: enhanced delivery efficiency along with outstanding biocompatibility. The application of NDs for chemotherapeutic delivery and subsequently discovered that the NDs also are extremely effective at delivering therapeutic proteins. A research team engineered surface-modified ND particles that successfully and efficiently delivered DNA into mammalian cells. The delivery efficiency was 70 times greater than that of a conventional standard for gene delivery. The new hybrid material could impact many facets of nanomedicine efficient avenue toward gene delivery via DNA-functionalized NDs, and serves as a rapid, scalable, and broadly applicable gene therapy strategy.

Nano diamond in biomedical applications

Due to its hardness, chemical inertness, thermal conductivity, and low cytotoxicity, Diamond Nanopowder Nanoparticles ND could be applied as coating materials of implants, other surgery tools, etc. in biomedical fields. After surgery, no ejection was observed, whereas the standard metal implants were rejected twice. As such, diamond is ideal for use in medical applications, e.g. artificial replacements, joint coatings, heart valves, etc.

Skin Care

The unique adsorption capabilities of Diamond Nanopowder Nanoparticles, their addition to skincare products enhances the effect of biologically active ingredients and facilitates their penetration into deeper skin layers. ND makes all biologically-active additives “work” at their maximum efficiency. Also, due to their unique optical properties, ND is an excellent agent for skin protecting from harmful UV radiation.

 

Diamond nanoparticles

Diamond nanoparticles

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Lithium Ion Batteries Properties

Lithium Ion Batteries Properties

Lithium Ion Batteries Properties

Lithium Ion Batteries Properties: materials represent a rapidly growing area in the field of Li-ion batteries because of their substantial advantages in terms of mass transport. Transport in nanoparticle systems typically encompasses shorter transport lengths for both electrons and Li+ ions, higher electrode–electrolyte contact area, better accommodation of the strain of Li+ insertion/extraction, and in some cases also local anomalies. Therefore, elaborate nanocomposites generally show higher reversible capacity, and better cycling behavior than their simpler antecedents. The large surface/volume ratio and the congruence of the carrier screening length make nanocomposites efficient electrode materials for powerful electrochemical energy storage devices with both high energy density and high power density, due to the pronounced size effects, dimensional confinement, and the reduction of the Li+ diffusion length. Of such nanomaterials, Si-based nanocomposites, nanostructured TiO2, and SnO2 nanomaterials have received a great deal of attention, and are considered as alternative anode materials.

Lithium Ion Batteries Properties

Lithium Ion Batteries Properties

 

Lithium Ion Batteries Properties: (1D) nanostructures, Nanowires/rods, are perfect building blocks for functional nanodevices and efficient electron and exciton transport. Commonly, electrical conductivity is one of the most important factors affecting the utilization of active materials and the internal resistance of the electrode. Therefore, synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructures of higher electrical conductivity is highly desirable in the field of nanoelectrode materials. Recently, several techniques for the synthesis of metal oxide-metal composites become available. The composites have a stronger ability to promote electron transfer than metal oxide because of inner electric metal, which is in the centre of the composite. As the result, the composites could supply more efficient transport passage for the electrochemical processes.

Lithium Ion Batteries Properties: the development of nanoscience, it is reasonable to expect that the ability to process nanostructure metal oxide into nanostructure mother metal materials. This could enrich our understanding of its fundamental properties and enhance its performance in currently existing applications. In recent years, cupric oxide (CuO) nanostructures have attracted great interest because of their fundamental importance and promising applications into electro chromic devices, optical switching, solar cells, heterogeneous catalysis, photo catalysis, gas sensing, field emission, lithium batteries and so on. With advantages of high theoretical capacity (670 mAh g-1), improved safety than graphite, low cost and environmental benignity, CuO is a very appealing candidate for the substitution of a conventional graphite anode in lithium ion batteries.

Lithium Ion Batteries Properties: CuO not only enables easy diffusion of Li ions, the strain associated with Li uptake could also be well accommodated, contributing to better electrochemical cycling performance. Several groups have successfully synthesized CuO nanostructures onto bulk copper foil or other bulk materials, however, there is only single face of the bulk substrates to grow CuO nanostructures and assemble advanced application device. This assembly has relative lower surface area of CuO nanostructures. The novel characteristics that are always acquired from nanostructure CuO might be strongly influenced by the bulk substrates or other nonelectric substrates properties because they can grow only on the bulk substrate. Hence, to find a facile, mild way to grow CuO nanostructures on the Cu nanostructures and extend their applications are of great scientific and technological significance.

Lithium Ion Batteries Properties: we used glucose, one of the bio molecules, to assist the synthesis of brand new puzzle-like copper superstructures and applied them to no enzymatic glucose sensors. In this work, we use these copper superstructures to calcine under different temperatures. A new structured composite, CuO Nanorods on double-face Cu micro puzzles is obtained. These CuO-Cu superstructures composites can be used as lithium ion battery anode materials. The electrodes containing CuO Nanorods on double-face Cu micro puzzles exhibited an electrochemical capacity of > 640 mA h g-1, and satisfactory electrochemical stability up to 300 charge–discharge cycles.

Lithium Ion Batteries Properties:

Lithium Ion Batteries Properties:

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Gold Nanoparticles In Drug Delivery

GOLD Nanoparticles

Gold Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery

Gold Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery:
Current cancer therapy strategies are based in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, being the chemotherapy the one that shows the greater efficiency for cancer treatment, mainly in more advanced stages.. Introduction of new agents to cancer therapy has greatly improved patient survival but still there are several biological barriers that antagonize drug delivery to target cells and tissues, namely unfavourable blood half-life and physiologic behaviour with high off-target effects and effective clearance from the human organism . The development of side effects in normal tissues (e.g. nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, etc) and multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms by cancer cells leads to a reduction in drug concentration at target location, a poor accumulation in the tumour with consequent reduction of efficacy that may associate to patient relapse.

Gold Nanoparticles For Drug Delivery

To overcome these issues and still improve the efficiency of chemotherapeutic agents there is a demand for less toxic and more target specific therapies towards cancer cells, i.e. novel drugs, drug delivery systems (DDSs) and also gene delivery systems. AuNPs appears of great interest in the medical field, great efficiency towards cancer therapy. The continuous interest in AuNPs is based in their tuneable optical properties that can be controlled and modulated for the treatment and diagnosis of diseases. drug delivery to these disease sites and Au nanoparticles further offer a particularly unique set of physical, chemical and photonic properties with which to do so.

Sensing of DNA and Oligonucleotides:
The sensitivity and selectivity response to the biological environment, the optical properties of Au NPs have been used in sensing biological molecules and cells. Various Au NP formulations have been fabricated for targeting biological targets, such as DNA, RNA, cells, metal ions, small organic compounds, protein, and many more of biological specimens. using functionalized Au NPs for biosensing, namely, sensing of DNA and oligonucleotides, SPR biosensor with functionalized Au NPs, cell detection and labeling with functionalized Au NPs, protein detection, detecting heavy metal ions, sensing of glucose, and sensing of other biological-related molecules with functionalized gold nanoparticles, respectively. Detection of DNA, aptamers, and oligonucleotide has received great attention in the past few years because it has important applications in medical research and diagnosis and food and drug industry monitoring. Majority of the assays identify specific sequence through hybridization of an immobilized probe to the target analyte after the latter has been modified with a covalently linked optical probe. Currently, many research teams have developed DNA, aptamers, and oligonucleotide detection schemes that involve the use of chemically functionalized Au NPs . These approaches are simple and straightforward and use facile NPs surface functionalization chemistry and usually do not require expensive instrumentation. In this section, we will discuss a few examples of using functionalized Au NPs as ultrasensitive tools for sensing DNA, aptamers, and oligonucleotides. Many DNAsensing systems have been integrated with Au NPs toenhance the detection limit and sensitivity.

Gold (Au) nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibit a combination of physical, chemical, optical and electronic properties unique from other biomedical nanotechnologies and provide a highly multifunctional platform with which to image and diagnose diseases, to selectively deliver therapeutic agents to sensitize cells and tissues to treatment regimens, to monitor and guide surgical procedures, and to preferentially administer electromagnetic radiant to disease sites. Owing to their large size, circulating nanoparticles preferentially accumulate at tumour sites and in inflamed tissues due to the characteristically defective architecture of the vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to these tissue. These platforms can deliver compounds that are intrinsically susceptible to enzymatic degradation, as well as those that exhibit poor intracellular penetration (e.g., siRNA). AuNPs can be routinely surface functionalized with active ligands at densities (1.0 × 106 µm−2) that are 100- and 1000-fold higher than that achievable with conventional liposome’s or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles, respectively, allowing their binding affinity to be optimized for a particular disease type, stage or patient. Because of their comparability in size to the distances between cell-surface targets, Au nanostructures can simultaneously engage multiple, adjacent receptor sites, achieving increased selectivity in their uptake through this multivalent avidity.

Applications of colloidal Au nanoparticles in drug delivery and laser photo thermal therapy

AuNPs are particularly attractive for use in multimodal drug-delivery applications where these structures can afford enhanced drug pharmacokinetics/bio distribution and simultaneous hyperthermia and radiation therapy contrast, as well as photo-imaging contrast, spectro chemical diagnostic contrast and, when molecularly directed to specific sub cellular sites, intrinsic pharmacodynamic properties . The ability of these structures to act as photo thermal therapeutic agents arises due to the delocalized nature of their free (conduction) electrons and the increasing polarizability of these charge carriers at the surfaces of these materials. These surface electrons exhibit collective modes of oscillation (surface plasmon modes), which vary in frequency depending on the size/shape of the nanoparticles and its dielectric environment. Plasmon modes that result in a dipolar charge density distribution can couple with and resonantly absorb optical photons of the same frequency, resulting in a transient increase in The local temperature increases attainable using laser photo thermal therapy (PTT) are sufficient to induce rapid tumour cell death (necrosis) with minimal damage to surrounding tissues. The energy of these electrons equivalent to that of the photon (EFermi [Au] ~−5.1 eV v. Evac). AuNPs are comprised of a high atomic number (i.e., high-Z) element, they have been shown to substantially to improve the efficacy of radiotherapy treatments via tumour-localized photoelectron and Auger electron ejection, which can damage the DNA of tumour cells in the local surrounding tissue. Hyperthermia is also known to synergize with radiotherapy treatments; however, reports of multimodal plasmonic laser PTT and high-Z enhanced radiotherapy using AuNPs have yet to be explored.

GOLD NANOPARTICLE-MEDIATED DRUG DELIVERY

Cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles is inacceptable level as gold nanoparticles are considered to be Gold nanoparticles have the ability of bio-imaging of the effected cancerous cells for therapy. For effective drug delivery system or drug therapy it is important to investigate about the biological effects of the nanoparticles as gold nanoparticles have unique physical and chemical properties and have strong binding attraction for thiols, proteins , carboxylic acid aptamers and disulfides so they have been extensively used in the field of biosciences especially in drug delivery for cancer therapy. Gold nanoparticles followed three main pathways for the cellular uptake which includes receptor mediated endocytosis, phagocytosis and fluidphase endocytosis non-toxic agent. There are two factors, i.e. drug release and transport, which are very important for the efficient drug delivery system. Drugs are loaded on nano carriers by non-covalent interaction or through covalent conjugation with the help of pro-drug, which is treated by the cell. Gold nanoparticles have functional flexibility due to their mono layers so they provide efficient system.

Applications of gold nanoparticles in drug and gene delivery systems

The unique optical, chemical, and biological properties of gold nanoparticles have resulted in them becoming of clinical interest in several applications including drug and gene delivery. The attractive features of gold nanoparticles include their surface Plasmon resonance, the controlled manner in which they interact with thiol groups, and their non-toxic nature in the use of gold nanoparticles in drug and gene delivery systems
New use of dendrimer entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) modified with folic acid (FA) as a non-viral vector for targeted gene delivery applications. In this study, amine-terminated generation 5 poly (amidoamine) dendrimers modified with FA via covalent conjugation were used as templates to synthesize gold nanoparticles with an Au salt/dendrimer molar ratio of 25 : 1. The synthesized FA-modified Au DENPs (Au DENPs-FA) were used as a non-viral vector for the delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA) into a model cancer cell line (HeLa cells) over expressing high-affinity FA receptors (FAR). The DNA compaction ability of the formed Au DENPs-FA was systematically characterized using a gel retardation assay, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. We show that similar to the Au DENPs vector without FA, the Au DENPs-FA. was able to compact the pDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). With a lower cytotoxicity than that of the Au DENPs without FA proven by a cell viability assay, the developed FA-modified Au DENPs may be used as a promising non-viral vector for safe and targeted gene therapy applications.

Gold Nanoparticles for Nucleic Acid Delivery
Nucleic acid delivery vehicles are generally divided into two categories: biological and synthetic vectors. On the biological side, viral vectors provide efficient delivery; however, immunogenicity, carcinogenicity, and inflammation can become an issue for clinical applications. Traditional synthetic vectors—including cationic lipids, polymers, and dendrimers have been widely used for intracellular nucleic acid delivery.

Covalent AuNP : The application of RNA interference (RNAi) using AuNPs mainly involves delivery of microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Synthesized a class of polyvalent nucleic acid AuNPs (pNA–AuNPs) by functionalizing AuNPs covalently with thiol-modified oligo-nucleotides and applied them to siRNA-based gene silencing. The dense shell of oligo-nucleotides on the surface of these NPs inhibits degradation by nucleases, protecting the payload. Surprisingly, cellular uptake of these pNA–AuNPs was quite rapid with >50 different cell lines, even though their strong negative charge would be expected to prevent uptake (see following text). Cellular uptake of pNA–AuNPs was strongly dependent on the density of the oligo nucleotide on the particle surface, with higher density providing more efficient delivery

Noncovalent AuNP conjugates
Non-covalent nucleic acid delivery vehicles are an attractive alternative to covalent systems. Using supra-molecular conjugates allows the use of unmodified nucleic acids, allowing delivery of DNA for gene therapy and of RNA for knockdown applications. With these systems, the synthetic versatility of the AuNP platform provides multiple options for vehicle design, such as mixed-monolayer-protected AuNPs (MM-AuNPs), amino acid–functionalized AuNPs (AA–AuNPs), and layer-by-layer-fabricated AuNPs (LbL-AuNPs).
The strong negative charge of nucleic acids makes cationic AuNPs obvious partners for self-assembly. In early studies, Rotello et al.created effective delivery vehicles for plasmid DNA using quaternary ammonium–functionalized AuNPs

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From us, you can easily purchase Gold Nanoparticles at great prices. Place online order and we will dispatch your order through DHL, FedEx, UPS. You can also request for a quote by mailing us at sales@nanoshel.com Contact: +1 302 268 6163 (US and Europe), Contact: +91-9779550077 (India). We invite you to contact us for further information about our company and our capabilities. At Nanoshel, we could be glad to be of service to you. We look forward to your suggestions and feedback.

GOLD Nanoparticles For Biosensor

GOLD Nanoparticles

Gold Nanoparticles For Biosensor

Gold Nanoparticles are most extensively nanomaterials for biomedical application due to their unique properties, such as rapid and simple synthesis, large surface area, strong adsorption ability and facile conjugation to various biomolecules. The remarkable photo-physical properties of Gold Nanoparticles For Biosensor have provided plenty of opportunities for the preparation of Gold Nanoparticles For Biosensor-based optical biosensors, while the excellent biocompatibility, conductivity, catalytic properties  have facilitated the application of gold Nanoparticles in the contraction of electrochemical biosensors.

Gold Nanoparticles For Biosensor

Gold Nanoparticles For Biosensor
Gold Nanoparticles For Biosensor technology plays a key role in targeted sensing of selective bio-molecules using functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Au NP-based sensors are expected to change the very foundations of sensing and detecting bio-molecules. The use of surface functionalized Au NPs for smart sensor fabrication leading to detection of specific bio-molecules In addition to sensing, gold nanoparticles are attractive candidate for photo-thermal therapeutic, diagnostic, and drug delivery applications. Bioimaging and therapeutic applications of these unique nanomaterials will be described of their tuneable optical properties, which strongly depend on the particle size, shape, composition, and surface coating.

Sensing of DNA and Oligonucleotides:
The sensitivity and selectivity response to the biological environment, the optical properties of Gold Nanoparticles For Biosensor have been used in sensing biological molecules and cells. Various Au NP formulations have been fabricated for targeting biological targets, such as DNA, RNA, cells, metal ions, small organic compounds, protein, and many more of biological specimens. Detection of DNA, aptamers, and oligonucleotide has received great attention in the past few years because it has important applications in medical research and diagnosis and food and drug industry monitoring. Majority of the assays identify specific sequence through hybridization of an immobilized probe to the target analyte after the latter has been modified with a covalently linked optical probe. Currently, many research teams have developed DNA, aptamers, and oligonucleotide detection schemes that involve the use of chemically functionalized Au NPs . These approaches are simple and straightforward and use facile NPs surface functionalization chemistry and usually do not require expensive instrumentation.

Cell Detection and Labeling with Functionalized Au NPs:

Molecular imaging methods are often used to image and detect tumor cells. Among them, fluorescence microscopy is preferable technique for tissue and cells investigation with high resolution. However, this technique suffers from low sensitivity and tedious steps are needed to prepare the samples for imaging. For this reason, area efforts have been made to develop efficient biosensors aimed at improving the detection signals for accurate diagnosis of diseases. The design and construction of a successful biosensor with high detection limit is a primary goal toward the development of high detection limit for sensing cancer cells. The preparation of nano composite gel by neutralizing a designer nano composites solution of chitosan-encapsulated Au NPs. The gel was designed for immobilization and electro chemical study of cells and monitoring adhesion, proliferation of cells on electrodes. The ICG Au NPs provides spatially localized chemical information from the cell environment by monitoring the SERS local optical fields of the Au NPs. The functionalized Au NPs offer the potential to enhance the spectral specificity and selectivity of current chemical analysis approaches of living cells based on vibrational information. Physical and biological features of the Au NPs networks offer multimodalities for nanobiomedical imaging applications.

PROTEIN DETECTION:

Proteins have complementary counter parts that are similar to oligonucleotide strands. Protein targets biomolecules can be anchored to Gold Nanoparticles For Biosensor surface for their specific detection together with other sensing agents and tools.  Au NPs can be applied to detect multiple protein targets through a single screening test. Demonstrated that the unique optical properties of Au NPs can be used to develop a label-free biosensor in a chip format. Sensor chips were fabricated by chemisorptions of Au NPs on amine-functionalized glass.

SENSING OF GLUCOSE:

The development of fast and reliable sensing devices in monitoring of glucose for the treatment and control of diabetes has always been an important research topic for the last decade. Electrochemical methods are considered to be useful for sensing glucose because higher sensitivity detection can be achieved. Most of the electrochemical methods are based on the use of the enzyme glucose oxidase that selectively catalyzes the oxidation of glucose to glucolactone. The fabrication of glucose biosensor by covalent attachment of glucose oxidase to Gold Nanoparticles For Biosensor-modified Au electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to confirm the assembly process of biosensor and suggested that the Au NPs in the biosensing interface effectively enhanced the electron transfer between analyte and electrode surface. Cyclic voltammetry performed in the presence of glucose and artificial redox mediator, ferrocenemethanol, allowed the quantification of the surface concentration of electrically wired enzyme. The Au NPs efficiently catalyzed the oxidation of glucose in phosphate buffer solution in the absence of any enzymes or redox mediators. Au NPs can be integrated into sensing devices for real-time monitoring of blood sugar that will enable clinicians to develop personalized medicine for the individual patients.

BIOSENSORS FOR DETECTION OF ENZYME ACTIVITY:

Despite of  the many interesting physicochemical properties of Gold Nanoparticles For Biosensor, the majority of Au NP’s-based enzyme assays exploit one of the following two Au NP’s characteristics: (i) the surface plasmon absorption of Au NP’s; and (ii) their ability to quench fluorescence. Because of these properties, Au NP’s have been used in colorimetric-based and Fo¨rster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based enzyme assays. In addition to colorimetric and FRET-based assays, other detection systems have been described for Au NP’s-based enzyme activity determination, most notably electrochemical and light-scattering measurements.Optimal enzyme activity is essential for maintenance of physiological homeostasis. Many pharmacological agents are activators and inhibitors of enzymes. It is essential, therefore, in the development of drugs as enzyme activators and inhibitors, that enzyme activities be accurately measured under physiological and pathological conditions. Different biochemical assays have been developed for this purpose, some of which are based on nano structured materials. Gold Nanoparticles For Biosensor can be attached to many traditional biological probes such as antibodies, lectins, super antigens, glycans, nucleic acids, and receptors. Au NP’s are used as catalysts and as imaging and therapeutic agents., Au NP’s have been proposed as signal transducers for biosensors.

CANCER TREATMENT

Au NP’s are used in cancer treatment using optical transparencies. Au NP’s are delivered to cancer cell using effective drug delivery then cancer tissue are exposed to UV light and Au NP’s absored the energy and thermal vibration break the cancer tissue in small cell and using chemotherapy these small celll are destroyed. Thus use less amount of drug so less side effect.

Contact Us for Highly Pure Gold Nanoparticles For Biosensor 

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