Monthly Archives: March 2016

CARBON NANOTUBES IN MICROELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS

CARBON NANOTUBES IN MICROELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS

CNTs, also called buckytubes, are cylindrical carbon molecules with unique properties that make them potentially useful in a wide variety of applications. These include applications in nano-electronics, optics, and materials applications. CNTs exhibit extraordinary strength as well as unique electrical, mechanical and thermal properties. CNTs reportedly have extremely high surface areas, large aspect ratios, and remarkably high mechanical strength. The tensile strength of CNTs is 100 times greater than that of steel, and the electrical and thermal conductivities approach those of copper. CNTs are also good incorporating agents due to their unique electrical, mechanical and thermal properties.

CNT Blog 2

Nanotubes in Interconnect Applications:

The transistors at the bottom make up only a fraction of the total chip, and already today, the speed and performance of such chips is mainly limited by the interconnects, i. e. the copper-based wiring of the transistors with different metal layers (wires) and the vertical connections between these layers, Predicts a current density of 3.3 106 A/cm2  in a via, a value which, to date, can only be supported by CNTs, where current densities exceeding 109  A/cm2  have been reported in nanotubes without heat sinks. At this ITRS technology node a MPU/ASIC half-pitch of 32 nm is predicted. On this scale, traditional interconnect schemes become problematic due to the increased wire resistances resulting from grain and surface scattering effects and the higher current densities which must be carried. Sufficient heat removal from the chip is already a problem in present day computers.

Carbon Nanotubes in Transistor Applications

If a semiconducting SWCNT of about 1 nm diameter is attached to two separated (metallic) contacts (source and drain), a near by third gate-electrode can modulate the conductivity of the tube by about 6 orders of magnitude at room temperature. This effect has been observed already in and has led to a kind of race in the scientific community to achieve the best performing CNT-device. Explained by the assumption of simple 1-dimensional electrostatics, which relates the charge in the tube by the capacitance of the tube- and gate structure and the applied gate-voltage. Based on this theory a best performance projection for CNT-transistors can be made and compared to the ITRS requirements. We propose a vertical, coaxially gated nanotube transistor, with a 1 nm diameter tube, 10 nm gate-length and a 1 nm thick silicondioxide as the effective gate-oxide. which are always scaled to device width, we make a parallel array of this device comprising 250 CNTs per micron. we can estimate the performance of the CNT-transistor and the results are tabulated and compared with the ITRS in.

In electronic devices as field-emission  sources

CNTs can be used in electric devices as field-emission sources. This can be done when a potential is between the CNT surface and the anode. Electrons are easily emitted from their tips due to the curvature present in the CNTs in the form of pentagons or due to the presence of oxidized tips. CNTs can be used for the fabrication of multiple electronic devices, including flat-panel displays, intense light sources, bright lamps and X-ray sources. Although CNTs are good emitters, nanocomposites of CNTs are also excellent electron-emission surfaces which are vacuum stable. There are many advantages when using CNTs as an electron emitter. These include long lifetimes of the components, stable field-emission over prolonged time periods, low emission threshold potentials, the absence of the need for an ultra-high vacuum, and high current densities. It has been reported that large current densities as high as 4 A/cm2 can be achieved.

Batteries (Lithium ions batteries)

Lithium (Li) is a useful element, as it offers unique properties due to its lowest electronegativity and because electrons are easily donated from Li. Thus, it is the best candidate for the fabrication of lightweight and efficient batteries. However, despite the above advantages, the high reactivity of Li limits its applicability, as the metal loses its efficiency. This problem can be solved by the combining an application of CNTs and Li by intercalating Li ions within CNTs. This enables Li+ ions to migrate from a graphitic anode to the cathode. A separating medium is required between the anode and cathode, usually polyolefin. The theoretical Li storage capacity is expected to be 372 mAh/g when intercalated with CNTs. The charge and discharge phenomena in these batteries are controlled by the Li+ intercalation and de-intercalation rates. Recently, CNTs could be used in Li ion batteries. A high irreversible capacity is possible for CNTs. Determine the charging and discharging phenomenon in Li+ batteries. SWNT materials chemically or mechanically, one can increase the electrochemical storage of these batteries. On the basis of such possibilities, many electronics companies have begun to use carbon nanofibers and nanotubes as the electrodes in Li+ batteries to enhance their storage capacity and lifetimes.

CNTs in supercapacitors and actuators

Due to their large surface area as well as their high electrical conductivity, CNTs are excellent materials for use in electrochemical devices  the first to demonstrate that with sheet electrodes of pyrolytically grown MWNTs, it is possible to achieve very high specific capacitances in individual cells in devices containing 38 wt% of H2SO4 as the electrolyte. The cells could reach power densities that exceeded 8,000 W/kg. Recently, demonstrated that MWNT-polypyrrole composites are able to reach specific capacitances of  CNT supercapacitors are used in applications to devices that require high power capabilities and higher storage capacities. The power densities approach 20 kW/kg at energy densities of 7 Wh/kg. CNT-embedded supercapacitors can be used to provide fast acceleration and to store braking energy electrically for hybrid electric vehicles. Actuators are important devices, but the problem associated with them is that their efficiency decreases with an increase in the temperature. Therefore, CNT-modified actuators were prepared by several researchers. These work at relatively low voltages and at temperatures as high as 350oC. For example, the maximum stress observed in SWNT actuators was 26 MPa. This value is comparable to that of natural muscles, as it is 100 times larger than the value for natural muscle.

Sensors

Sensors are important detecting devices that are now widely used in different fields. The efficiency of biosensors and molecular sensors can be enhanced by attaching CNTs onto them. With chemical force microscopy techniques, were the first to demonstrate that it is possible to sense functional chemical groups attached onto the ends of CNTs. Thus, it is possible to construct various types of sensors containing nanotube composite pellets, which are very sensitive to gases and which can be used to monitor leaks in chemical plants. working in a similar field that SWNTs are extremely sensitive to air and vacuum conditions by noting large variations in the electrical resistance levels of their SWNT samples. They also added that MWNTs can be used as efficient sensors for NH3, H2O, CO2 and CO. Detected changes in the resistance and capacitance levels of CNTs when the environment was slightly modified. Highly sensitive and fast-responsive microwave-resonant sensors were prepared for detecting NH3 using either SWNTs or MWNTs. In addition to gas sensing, CNTs and its composites can be used assensitive environmental pressure sensors. CNTs are very sensitive to liquid immersion or polymer-embedding processes, as the nanotubes slightly deform min the presence of different liquid media.

Gas and hydrogen storage

Due to their hollow cylindrical nature, CNTs can act as efficient gas and metal containers. It has been found that many important chemical species, such as metals, metal carbides, and oxides, can be introduced into CNT core by different methods, including chemical treatments, arc-discharge methods, solidstate reactions and electrochemical technique. However, the major issues pertaining to these techniques are related to the fact that CNTs are not able to encapsulate gaseous substances. Recent studies have revealed that H2 and Ar can be stored in SWNTs and MWNTs, respectively. Demonstrated experimentally that it is possible to introduce gaseous nitrogen inside MWNTs using a single-step process. They also reported that MWNTs can be loaded via the spray pyrolysis of ferrocene and benzyl amine solutions. Similar work was carried out, but they used a powder pyrolysis of ferrocene and camphor under an ammonia atmosphere. The storage of different chemical species in CNTs may be advantageous for the fabrication of fuel cells for use mainly to power electric vehicles. Unfortunately, there is some controversy regarding the high-pressure storage of hydrogen. It is important to emphasize that the hydrogen storage capacity of CNTs ranges from 0.1 to 66 wt % . The influence of impurities (coming from the CNT synthesis methods) may be responsible for reported previously results showing uptake levels as high as 7%. From a theoretical point of view, density functional theory has been used to calculate the H2 storage capacity in CNTs. Different mechanisms by which CNTs possibly adsorb hydrogen molecules were proposed, including chemisorption, adsorption at interstitial sites, and the swelling of the nanotube array .

Scanning probe tips

Scanning probe tips are of great importance as they can be used to obtain images with better resolutions. If a MWNT-bound scanning probe is used instead of a normal probe, it becomes possible to obtain a better image resolution as compared. Chemically modified nanotube tips can be used as sensors for detecting specific chemical and/or biological groups. These sensors are important to detect added or even illegal substances.determined experimentally that it is possible to nfabricate nanotube tweezers by attaching two nanotubes onto a probe tip. This nano-tool operates according to the electrostatic interactions between two carbon cylinders. These achievementsshow clear advance regarding the use of nanotubes in current technologies, and it is clear that in the near future, further advances will be achieved.

Electronic devices using CNTs

CNTs are important nanomaterials that can be used in electronic devices to improve the properties of these fabricated a three-terminal switch-able device based upon SWNTs. The SWNT molecule was semiconducting and connected to metal nanoelectrodes. The performance at a low capacitance level was excellent. The major problem associated with nanotubes is the difficulty in manipulating them; thus, another method was devised to control the length and the electronic properties of individual nanotubes by STM nanostructuring. Described that crossings and bends with SWNTs could be generated by means of AFM. This technique allows us to cut nanotubes into shorter sections using controlled voltages applied at the STM tips and to fabricate tiny nanotube devices that could be useful for the future construction of molecular machinery, nano-scale circuits and other nanoelectric materials. There are many examples of experimental evidence indicating that CNTs can carry current densities of 109 A/cm2; t ese values are much lower than those observed in metals (105 A/cm2). The very first time the fabrication of field-effect transistors that exhibit a high favorable gain, a large on-off ratio and room-temperature operation. The researchers showed that one-, two- and three-transistor circuits exhibit a range of digital logic operations. Examples include an inverter, a logic NOR, a static random-access memory cell, and an AC ring oscillator. A Harvard group in a similar way produced crossed nanowire p-n junctions and junction arrays that were configured as key OR and NOR logic-gate structures, showing substantial gain. They can be used for the development of novel computer technologies in the near future. The researchers also showed that pristine CNTs always behave as p-type transistors, whereas doped-nanotubes act as n-type devices. Both types could be integrated to fabricate voltage inverters. It is possible to generate logic rings as well as NOR and OR logic gates using arrays of p- and n-type nanotube FETs, as it is difficult to control the chirality of the tubes with the electronic properties. It is possible to peel the outer layers of arc-discharged-produced MWNTs until the desired electronic properties of the outer shell are obtained. However, controlled growth in order to achieve selective chiralities needs to be investigated and exploited formore electrical applications. similar hypothesis and demonstrated that the electronic properties of CNTs can be utilized within polymeric materials to realize desired electrical applications.

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CNT For Biomedical Application

CNT for Biomedical application

Then, surface modification of CNTs that makes them ideal for use in medical applications is highlighted. Examples of common applications, including cell penetration, drug delivery, gene delivery and imaging, are given. However, CNTs are not a single substance but a growing family of different materials possibly eliciting different biological responses. CNTs are intensively explored for in vitro and in vivo delivery of therapeutics, which was inspired by an important finding that CNTs can penetrate cells by themselves without apparent cytotoxic effect to the cells. The high aspect ratio makes CNTs outstanding from other types of round nanoparticles in that the needle-like CNTs allow loading large quantities of payloads along the longitude of tubes without affecting their cell penetration capability. With the adequate loading capacity, the CNTs can carry multifunctional therapeutics, including drugs, genes and targeting molecules, into one cell to exert multivalence effects. In the other side, owing to the ultrahigh surface area along with the strong mechanical properties and electrically conductive nature, CNTs are excellent material for nano-scaffolds and three dimensional nano-composites. CNTbased devices have been successfully utilized in tissue engineering and stem cell based therapeutic applications, including myocardial therapy, bone formation, muscle and neuronal regeneration. Furthermore, owing to the distinct optical properties of CNTs such as high absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) range, photoluminescence, and strong Raman shift, CNTs are excellent agents for biology detection and imaging.

CNT For Biomedical Application

CNT For Biomedical Application

 

CNT For Biomedical Application: CNTs and antioxidant

CNTs, when instilled in lungs, induced inflammatory and fibrotic response, which was supposed to be dueto oxidative stress derived from free radicals, although no real evidence of ROS generation from CNTs was observed. SWCNTs and ultrashort SWCNTs (US-SWCNTs) were derivatized with butyrate hydroxyl toluene (BHT) using two different approaches as covalent attachment of triazene to the sidewalls of pluronic-wrapped SWCNT or amidation of carboxylic residues in the case of US-SWCNT derivatives. SWCNTs were more efficient than the corresponding BHT derivatives, while in the case of oxidized US-SWCNTs, higher the loading of BHT residues, better was the antioxidant activity. This new finding paves the way for SWCNT application as novel medical therapeutics in the antioxidant field.

CNT For Biomedical Application: CNTs and Neuron Interactions

SWCNT-neuron system to test whether electrical stimulation delivered via SWCNTs can induce neuronal signaling. The patch clamped hippocampal cells, cultured on SWCNT substrates, they can be stimulated via the SWCNT layers. Any resistive coupling between bio membranes and Using single-cell electrophysiology techniques, electron microscopy analysis, and theoretical modeling, the same authors demonstrated that CNTs enhance the responsiveness of neurons, due to the formation of tight contacts between CNTs and the cell membranes. These could favor electrical shortcuts between the proximal and distal compartments of the neuron. All these successful works performed on neuronal growth and stimulation led to the hope of using CNTs as material for the reconstruction of neural injured tissues in the near future, paving the way for an application in spinal cord disease resolution and neurodegeneration restoration.

CNT For Biomedical Application: CNTs and imaging

SWCNTs are endowed of fluorescent properties that can be exploited in in vitro and in vivo imaging, and that have been used to determine the uptake of nanotubes in macrophages, the CNT elimination in rabbits, and their toxicity in fruit fly larvae. This surprising use of CNTs for imaging purposes is only possible when some properties of the nanotubes are preserved, that is, at least 100nm of the tubes must be unmodified and the CNTs should not be in bundles, conditions in which the fluorescence. This technique was used to determine the fate of CNT after pulmonary instillation, no signal changes in liver, spleen, and kidney were detected, implying the absence of systemic circulation of CNTs after inhalation. This result was also confirmed by histological analysis, establishing the possibility of using noninvasive methodology to detect CNT presence, if associated with a proper iron impurity concentration.

Anticancer Approaches

The potential of CNTs as a genetic material delivery system is great, with application in gene therapy, considering the general biocompatibility of CNTs themselves. As mentioned already, nanotubes easily bind macromolecules, such as nucleic acidsCNTs bearing two specific monoclonal antibodies (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, IGF1R and human endothelial receptor 2, HER2), prepared by supra-molecular approach with properly functionalized pyrene units, have been used to kill breast cancer cells with NIR irradiation. The main problem of near infrared irradiation application is due to its poor tissue penetration capacity, which allows the treatment of only superficial cancer lesions. Radiofrequency waves, on the contrary, penetrate more into tissues, and their interaction with internalized CNTs produces an increase in temperature of cells, thereby inducing cell death.

CNT For Biomedical Application: Applications in tissue engineering

The goal of tissue engineering is to replace diseased or damaged tissue with biologic substitutes that can restore and maintain normal functions. Major advances in the knowledge of cell and organ transplantation and of chemistry of CNTs have aided in the sustained development of CNT-based tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. CNTs can be used as additives to reinforce the mechanical strength of tissue scaffolding and conductivity by dispersing a small fraction of CNTs into a polymer or to improve the benefits of native extracellular matrix. To fully offer the mechanical and electrical properties compared with pure CNTs, CNT-based scaffolds have been developed. These scaffolds can be used asmolecular-level building blocks for the complex and miniaturized medical devices, which have enormous applications in biomedicine.

CNT For Biomedical Application: Treatment of infectious diseases

Recent breakouts of SARS, avian flu and swine flu have indicated that infectious disease has become a critical public health issue with global concerns. Some infectious diseases, such as AIDS, have turned out to be deadly, and no effective therapies have been available to date. The medicinal application of nanotechnology has shed light on the quick diagnosis and effective therapy of infectious diseases. SWCNTs an antimicrobial effect in a size-dependent manner, indicating that they might be useful as building blocks for antimicrobial therapeutics. Organic modification on the surface of CNTs can generate sites for the attachment of bioactive

molecules, the secondary structure of which can be preserved  and, hence, elicit specific anti-epitope antibodies. The antibody recognition to the conjugates was facilitated by thiscoupling. CNT For Biomedical Application can also play a part in viral disease therapy by providing high-sensitive detecting devices. For example, a coordinated biosensor made of Au nanoparticles and SWCNTs has been studied for detecting the nanomolar scale of HIV-1 PR, an aspartic protease responsible for virion assembly and maturation. Another example in viral disease diagnosis is the electrical detection of hepatitis C virus RNA.

CNT For Biomedical Application: Biomedical industry

CNT-incorporated sensors are expected to bring about revolutionary changes in various fields and especially in the biomedical industry sector. An example is the glucose sensing application, where regular self-tests of glucose by diabetic patients are required to measure and control their sugar levels. Another example is monitoring of the exposure to hazardous radiation like in nuclear plants/reactors or in chemical laboratories or industries. The main purpose in all these cases is to detect the exposure in different stages so that appropriate treatment may be administered. CNT-based nanosensors are highly suitable as implantable sensors. Implanted sensors can be used for monitoring pulse, temperature, blood glucose, and also for diagnosing diseases. One such example is the use of nanotubes to track glucose levels inthe blood, which would allow diabetics to check their sugar levels without the need for taking The hydrogen peroxide changes the optical properties of the nanotubes so that the tubes fluoresce when exposed to NIR laser light depending on the amount of hydrogen peroxide present. According to these researchers, this may lead to the use of small porous capillaries containing the altered nanotubes being implanted under the skin of diabetics. This would enable diabetics to check their blood-sugar levels routinely using a laser-pointerbased device to measure the fluorescence as they are not required to draw blood samples, which can become painful over time. CNT-based biosensors to detect DNA sequences in the body

CNT For Biomedical Application: BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF CNTs

With the extravagant properties like high aspect ratio, high electrical and thermal conductivity, non-immunogenicity etc. CNTs open a new vista in the field of nanobiotechnology. CNTs offer many benefits in various applications  like targeted drug delivery, imaging and diagnosis, photothermal therapy, etc. 

CNT For Biomedical Application: Medical Applications

a) Nanotubes are used as carrier to deliver quantum dots M(QDs) and proteins into cancer cells because QDs have photoluminescent property beneficial in imaging. This may be a path breaking finding.

b) The accomplishment of bone grafting relies on the capability Of scaffold that assists the natural healing process. However, the scaffold may be associated with few disadvantages like low strength and body rejection. Healing process can be improved by providing a CNT For Biomedical Application scaffold for new bone material to grow on. A studyrevealed that CNTs could mimic the role of collagen as scaffold for growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) into bones.

c) CNT For Biomedical Application have been used for Gene therapy and stem cell therapy.

d) CNT For Biomedical Application have sufficient contractility, which makes them candidates to replace damaged muscle tissue.

e) The functionalization of nanotubes with PEG makes them stealth that stops White Blood Cells (WBCs) from recognizing the nanotubes as foreign materials, thus allowing them to circulate in the blood streams for longer duration of time.

f) CNT For Biomedical Application are being widely employed for effective drug delivery and imaging/diagnosis for disease treatment and health monitoring.

g) Surface engineered CNT For Biomedical Application have emerged as nanocarriers for the therapeutics delivery. CNT For Biomedical Applicationhave shown enormous potential in specific cells targeting without affecting the normal/healthy cells and at a dosage lower than that of conventional drug delivery system

 

CNT For Biomedical Application: Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Applications of CNTs

CNT For Biomedical Application: Use of Carbon nanotubes in Cancer Therapy

By Drug delivery CNTs have emerged as delivery systems for the treatment of cancer due to their physicochemical properties. The efficacy of conventional drug delivery system has restrained because of various issues (toxicities, low therapeutic index and multi-drug resistance and restricted cellular penetration). Thus, the designing of efficient delivery system with enhanced mcellular internalization of potent drugs is desired. CNT For Biomedical Application can easily cross cell membrane, thus anticancer drugs transported by CNT For Biomedical Application will be released in situ with entire concentration, and accordingly, will be more effective on the tumor cell than that administered by conventional therapy. The high surface area-to-volume ratio of CNTs provides immense benefits in comparison to the current deliverycarriers, because the CNTs offer various attachment sites for bioactives and ligands. Till date, various drugs such as epirubicin doxorubicin , cisplatin, gemcitabine, methotrexate, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel have been utilized for drug delivery using surface functionalized CNTS in cancer treatment as well another area. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is an important and major hurdle associated with the conventional treatment as in cancer therapy. Due to elevated efflux of anticancer drugs by the over expressed p-glycoproteins (p-GP), MDR occursthat results in poor anticancer effect. In an attempt to overcome this problem, Li and co-workers have demonstrated that anticancer drug (doxorubicin) loaded CNTs functionalized with p-glycoprotein antibodies showed higher cytotoxicity than free doxorubicin against K562R leukemia cells

CNT For Biomedical Application: Surgical Aids

CNT For Biomedical Application implementation of nanotubes in diagnostics and imaging, they are now progressively being utilized in several surgical operating methods. Conventional surgical techniques were carried out using large-size macroscale instruments that were quite difficult to handle and hence made the surgical procedures more complex. The chief drawback of these macro instruments were difficulty in handling by physician/surgeon, probability of larger wounds leading to severe pain, scarring of patients and longer duration of time for surgery, and could lead to inaccuracy in surgery. Moreover, these equipments are not suitable for complicated methods like ophthalmic, ear, nasal surgery and in colonoscopy. Hence, to overcome the above hurdles, nanosized artificially intelligent equipment is of extensive interest. Nanotubes, due to their nano size, have been used for preparing the nanoscale surgical instruments, which made surgery more easy and refined. These nanosized instruments, comprising forceps, scalpels, grippers and sensortype embedded systems, offer the physician a great help to incise a specific area of tissue. Nanorobots are also used in surgery for several diseases including esophageal, colorectal, gynecological, cardiac, liver, gallbladder and bypass surgery .

CNT For Biomedical Application: Carriers for Drugs, Genes and Proteins

Gene therapy is an approach to correct a defective gene. Wrapping of CNTs with single stranded DNA (ssDNA) has been found to be sequence-dependent and can therefore be used in DNA testing. Because of the distinctive CNT For Biomedical Application and cylindrical structure of CNTs, they serve as vector for genes in the treatment of cancer and other genetic disorders (gene therapy) . Gene therapy can be further improved using CNTs that massist in the substitution of altered or missing genes. Complication of DNA passing through the cell membrane is the major problem associated with gene delivery. Further, CNTs facilitate the transportation of DNA into cells. CNTs also have a pronounced potential for stem cell therapy. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) along adipogenesis, osteogenesis, or chondrogenesis lines using COOHfunctionalized SWCNTs with no adverse effect on cell viability, proliferation or increasing cell lysis. In anotherstudy, SWCNTs-polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films have been used for neuronal stem cells (NSCs) applications revealing no adverse effect on the differentiation of NSCs. effect of supramolecular assemblies comprising of SWCNTs, molecular magnets and peptides in the human-adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) was investigated.

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CNT For Biomedical Application

CNT For Biomedical Application

 

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Graphene Nanoparticles Electronic device

Graphene Nanoparticles Electronic device

Graphene Nanoparticles Electronic device is a unique and very versatile element which is capable of forming different architectures at the nanoscale. The development of a general approach for the non-destructive chemical and biological functionalization of graphene could expand opportunities for graphene in both fundamental studies and a variety of device platforms. Graphene, a two dimensional monoatomic thick building block of a carbon allotrope, has emerged as a unique exotic carbon material  and received world-wide attention due to its exceptional thermal, optical, mechanical and transport properties. Graphene and its derivatives are being studied in near of physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering. Recent progress has shown that the graphene-based materials can have a profound impact on electronic and optoelectronic devices, chemical sensors, nanocomposites, and energy storage.

Properties

  1. High surface area
  2. Excellent electrical conductivity
  3. Ultra light
  4. Strong mechanical strength
  5. Thermal conductivity
  6. Thinnest, strongest, and stiffest material
  7. Transparent
  8. Highest current density at room temperature
  9. Completely impermeable
Graphene Nanoparticles Electronic device

Graphene Nanoparticles Electronic device

Transparent Conductive Films

Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) is widely used to make transparent conductive coatings for liquid crystal displays (LCD), flat panel displays, touch panels, solar cells and EMI shielding. However, high cost, limited supply and brittle nature of indium restricts its application in flexible substrate, motivating the search for highly transparent, high conductivity thin-film alternatives. Graphene is expected to be one of the mostly sought materials for future optoelectronic devices, including transparent electrodes for solar cells and LCD displays. With high electrical conductivity, high carrier mobility, mechanical stability, atomic layer thickness and moderately high optical transmittance in the visible range of the spectrum, graphene materials show promise for transparent conductive films (TCFs). Therefore, graphene is considered as a next generation transparent electrode material.

High-power LIBs is developing new materials with high electrical conductivity for fast electron transport and a large surface area and well-developed nanostructures with shortened diffusion length for Li ions. In this application area, the supercapacitors actually have better storage capacity than thin-film Li-ion battery technology. Graphene, due to its superior electrical conductivity, excellent mechanical flexibility, good chemical stability, and high surface area (2630 m2 g-1), is expected to be a good candidate

Graphene Nanoparticles Electronic device: Solar Cell

The harvesting and conversion of solar energy to supplement or even replace fossil fuels with clean and renewable energy resources. Among various technologies, the direct conversion of solar to electrical energy using dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) has received significant attention due to their relatively high power conversion efficiencies. Graphene shows the good potential for application in DSSC due to its unique physical and chemical properties. Graphene film electrode with good chemical and thermal stabilities, high transparency and excellent conductivity have potential to replace traditional indium tin oxide (ITO) and fluorine tin oxide (FTO) for DSSC which are costly. Graphene can also be used with photoanodes of (TiO2, ZnO etc) to enhance the chance of carrier separation. On the other hand, organic solar cells have also been proposed as a means to achieve low-cost energy due to their ease of manufacture, light weight, and compatibility with flexible substrates.

Graphene Nanoparticles Electronic device: High Electrical Conductivity of Graphene:

Graphene is high electrical conductivity, with potential for use in building nanoscale structures. Thus, electrochemically active transduction by graphene could modulate the behavior of neural cells or neural differentiation, which may require bioelectrical signal transmissions. The graphene surface facilitated neural differentiation of human neural SCs (hNSCs) rather than glial differentiation. This finding implies that the unique surface properties of graphene over glass, enhanced differentiation to neurons, probably by electrical coupling between the hNSCs and the graphene.

Graphene Nanoparticles Electronic device: Energy Storage:

Supercapacitors are a kind of cross between a battery and a capacitor. While batteries depend on a liquid electrolyte that changes the chemical states of ions in order to operate, a capacitor stores the ions on the surface of its electrodes in the form of static electricity. This translates into a capacitor being able to deliver energy very quickly in big bursts and to recharge almost as rapidly. Supercapacitors are already used today, but typically in conjunction with traditional batteries so they can give a quick burst of energy in applications such as electric cranes that may need a little bit extra boost to lift a heavy load. A supercapacitor could conceivably charge up much more quickly than that, but the problem is you couldn’t store enough energy in them to get very far on that charge.

High Performance Fuel Cell Catalyst

Graphene-metal hybrid materials are emerging as alternative electrode materials for fuel cell application. In order to solve these issues G-N based composites have been extensively used as electrocatalyst. The main requirements of G-N composites based catalyst are uniform loading of nanoparticles to ensure high overall surface area, intact binding between two components and minimum use of stabilizers. Prominent advantages of G-N composites based catalyst are lowering of catalyst poisoning, high catalytic current, stable catalytic current with repeated cycles.

Graphene Nanoparticles Electronic device

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From us, you can easily purchase Graphene Nanoparticles Electronic device at great prices. Place online order and we will dispatch your order through DHL, FedEx, UPS. You can also request for a quote by mailing us at sales@nanoshel.com Contact: +1 302 268 6163 (US and Europe), Contact: +91-9779550077 (India). We invite you to contact us for further information about our company and our capabilities. At Nanoshel, we could be glad to be of service to you. We look forward to your suggestions and feedback.


Reduce Graphene Oxide

Reduce Graphene Oxide

Graphene Oxide/ Reduce Graphene Oxide

While graphite is a 3 dimensional carbon based material made up of millions of layers of graphene, graphite oxide is a little different. By the oxidation of graphite using strong oxidizing agents, oxygenated functionalities are introduced in the graphite structure which not only expand the layer separation, but also makes the material hydrophilic (meaning that they can be dispersed in water). This property enables the graphite oxide to be exfoliated in water using sonication, ultimately producing single or few layer graphene, known as graphene oxide (GO). The main difference between graphite oxide and graphene oxide is, thus, the number of layers. While graphite oxide is a multilayer system in a graphene oxide dispersion a few layers flakes and monolayer flakes can be found.

The advantage of Reduce Graphene Oxide  is its easy dispersability in water & other organic solvents. On the other hand in terms of electrical conductivity, graphene oxide  is an electrical insulator due to disruption of its sp2  bonding networks. Reduce Graphene Oxide by using chemical reduction is a very scalable method.

Properties

  • High surface area
  • Excellent electrical conductivity
  • Ultra light
  • Strong mechanical strength
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Thinnest, strongest, and stiffest material
  • Transparent
  • Highest current density at room temperature
  • Completely impermeable
Reduce Graphene Oxide

Reduce Graphene Oxide

Drug delivery

Reduce Graphene Oxide has suitable functional groups such as carboxyl, epoxyl and hydroxyl , GO produced by vigorous oxidation of graphite by Hummers method, is an ideal nanocarrier for efficient drug and gene delivery. The unique structural features, such as large and planar sp2 hybridized carbon domain, high specific surface area (2630 m2/g), and enriched oxygen-containing groups, render GO excellent biocompatibility, and physiological solubility and stability, and capability of loading of drugs or genes via chemical conjugation or physisorption approaches.  The reactive COOH and OH groups GO bears facilitate conjugation with various systems, such as polymers, biomolecules (biotargeting ligand), DNA, protein , quantum dot, Fe3O4 nanoparticles, imparting GO with multi-functionalities and multi-modalities for diverse biological and medical applications. Efficient nanocarrier for delivery of water insoluble aromatic anticancer drugs into cells. Combined use of multiple drugs is a widely adopted clinical practice in cancer therapy to overcome drug resistance of cancer cells. The exploration of GO-based drug delivery expands from anticancer drugs with other drugs for non-cancer disease treatment.

Substrates for Antibacterial Effects:

The Graphene Oxide and Reduce Graphene Oxide exhibit inhibition effect of bacterial growth gram positive and gram negative  on the surfaces. The antibacterial effect of Reduce Graphene Oxide nanowalls is higher than that of Reduce Graphene Oxide nanowalls because of more efficient charge transfer of RGO with bacterial cells. The antibacterial effect of graphene derivatives was derived from oxidative stress induced by membrane disruption.

Water treatment

Graphene-nanoparticle composites have been used in different area of science. In particular graphene/GO/RGO has been used as coating material or stabilizer for nanoparticle, as conducting catalyst support, for assembling nanoparticle on their surface and as media for controlling aggregation of nanoparticle. Similarly, the presence of nanoparticle lowers the aggregation property of graphene and thus it’s high surface area and other properties largely remain intact. As a result G-N based composites have combined property of both components, suitable for various applications. In the following sections we will discuss some of the emerging areas where they have been used, highlighting their advantages and our own contribution in some of the areas. The application of nanomaterials in membrane biofouling control is detailed. They can also be used in other water treatment related surfaces such as storage tanks and distribution pipes to control pathogen contamination, biofilm formation, and microbial influenced corrosion. Affordable coating techniques that can economize nanomaterial use and maximize its efficacy while allowing for regeneration are in critical need.

High Performance Adsorbent for Water Purification

The different methods are available for wastewater treatment that include membrane based filtration, ion exchange, adsorption, precipitation and amalgamation. Among these techniques adsorption based method is cost effective and most widely used for removal of various pollutants from water, such as toxic metal ions, dyes and organic pollutants. Carbon based materials such as activated carbons and porous carbons are commonly used as an adsorbent. Recently graphene emerge as potential adsorbent due to high surface area and hydrophobic surface nature. Incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles between graphene or RGO effectively inhibits the aggregation between graphene sheets and between magnetic particle. Such composites show high surface area and magnetic property and offers high separation efficiency.

Reducing  food waste

Reduce Graphene Oxide used for smart food packing. While the food industry typically lags other industries, such as electronics and automobiles, in adopting new technologies, nanomaterial based applications have found their way into the food industry Also, graphene-based applications are on the rise, with innovative developments that help ensure food quality and safety. To improve agricultural productivity, pesticides, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides are commonly used, and are potentially toxic if allowed to remain in the food chain in high enough concentrations, so quality and safety of foods must be evaluated before delivery to the consumer market. Graphene is as a new sorbent in extraction  from environmental, biological and food samples.

SEA WATER PURIFICATION

Calcium and Magnesium ions have size 40nm in sea water so graphene sheets are used to filter out these ions. Thus sea water can be used as the drinking water.

Reduce Graphene Oxide

Reduce Graphene Oxide

Contact Us for Graphene Nanoparticles 

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Graphene Nanoparticles Applications

Graphene Nanoparticles Applications

Graphene is basically, a single atomic layer of graphite; an abundant mineral which is an allotrope of carbon. That is made up of very tightly bonded carbon atom organized into a hexagonal lattic. Its sp2 hybridization & very thin atomic thickness. These properties are enable graphene to break so many records in term of strength, electricity & heat conduction. These properties are enable graphene to break so many records in term of strength, electricity & heat conduction. Among various applications, #biomedical applications of graphene have attracted ever-increasing interests over the last decade years. The applications of graphene is #biomedical (medical science, drug delivery, drug delivery, medical devices ).

Graphene Nanoparticles Applications: Properties

  1. High surface area
  2. Excellent electrical conductivity
  3. Ultra light
  4. Strong mechanical strength
  5. Thermal conductivity
  6. Thinnest, strongest, and stiffest imaginable material
  7. Almost transparent
  8. Highest current density at room temperature
  9. Completely impermeable
  10. Conducting electricity in the limit of no electrons
Graphene Nanoparticles Applications

Graphene Nanoparticles Applications

 

Graphene Nanoparticles Applications: Biomedical

Graphene is now expanding its territory beyond electronic and chemical applications toward biomedical areas such as precise biosensing through graphene- quenched fluorescence, graphene-enhanced cell differentiation and growth, and graphene-assisted laser desorption/ionization for mass spectrometry. Graphene derivatives based on chemical and physical properties has hindered the biological application of graphene derivatives. The development of an efficient graphene-based biosensor requires stable biofunctionalization of graphene derivatives under physiological conditions with minimal loss of their unique properties.

Graphene for Drug Delivery & Cancer Therapy

Now a day’s graphene becomes exceptional material for the drug delivery and biomedical application. Due to its ultrahigh surface area and easy surface fictionalization, single-layered graphene has been intensively explored for drug and gene delivery. Utilizing their intrinsic high near-infrared absorbance, graphene and its derivatives have been found to be excellent candidates for multimodal imaging guided combined cancer photothermal and chemo- and/or photodynamic therapies.

Graphene Nanoparticles Applications: Drug delivery

Graphene Oxide has suitable functional groups such as carboxyl, epoxyl and hydroxyl, GO produced by vigorous oxidation of graphite by Hummers method, is an ideal nanocarrier for efficient drug and gene delivery. The unique structural features, such as large and planar sp2 hybridized carbon domain, high specific surface area (2630 m2/g), and enriched oxygen-containing groups, render GO excellent biocompatibility, and physiological solubility and stability, and capability of loading of drugs or genes via chemical conjugation or physisorption approaches.  The reactive COOH and OH groups GO bears facilitate conjugation with various systems, such as polymers, biomolecules (biotargeting ligand), DNA, protein, quantum dot, Fe3O4 nanoparticles, imparting GO with multi-functionalities and multi-modalities for diverse biological and medical applications. Efficient nanocarrier for delivery of water insoluble aromatic anticancer drugs into cells. Combined use of multiple drugs is a widely adopted clinical practice in cancer therapy to overcome drug resistance of cancer cells. The exploration of GO-based drug delivery expands from anticancer drugs to other drugs for non-cancer diseases treatment.

Tissue Engineering

Graphene with in vitro stem cell engineering, to better understand the mechanisms behind the interactive effects and further develop graphene as a platform for tissue engineering applications Graphene substrates have been shown to accelerate and direct the differentiation of mesenchymal and neural stem cells into osteoblasts and neurons, respectively, suggesting in particular the use of graphene as a platform to control stem cell differentiation. This engineering technique can be applied to bone, cartilage, muscle, skin, blood vessels, and to most other organs. Among these different therapies, all the engineering techniques share some common material factors: surfaces that interface with living cells, scaffolds that guide cell growth and modulation, and carriers to deliver bioactive molecules. Furthermore, in combination with stem cell (SCs) technology, materials with qualities appropriate for directing differentiation of SCs has now become much more critical for tissue engineering. Graphene is one of the most versatile nanomaterials currently available because of its exceptional properties.

Graphene Nanoparticles Applications: Gene delivery

Gene therapy is a novel and promising approach to treat various diseases caused by genetic disorders, and cancer. Successful gene therapy requires a gene vector that protects DNA from nuclease degradation and facilitates cellular uptake of DNA with high transfection efficiency. The major challenge facing the development of gene therapy is lack of efficient and safe gene vectors. That GO-CS sheets have a high drug payload, and the CPT-loaded GO-CS exhibits better cancer cell killing ability than the pure CPT. Further work on simultaneous loading and delivery of chemical drug and gene by the GO-CS nanocarrier for combined chemo- and gene- therapy is highly desired, to gain an enhanced therapeutic efficacy.

Graphene Nanoparticles Applications

Graphene Nanoparticles Applications

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EVA Foam Application

EVA Foam Application

EVA Foam Application: Polymer has been one of the most important materials in human society, with its synthesis technology that had been developed since the early 19th century. Polymers are used in many applications, which influence every aspect of our lives. These edge advantages are due to polymers’ properties, such as light weight, easy processability, isolation and other unique properties. To pursue lower density, better isolation and other related properties, foaming technology has been applied into polymers since the 1930s.

Foam is a substance that entraps on the inside, well-dispersed bubbles/cells. Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), also known as poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) (PEVA), is the copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate. The weight percent vinyl acetate usually varies from 10 to 40%, with the remainder being ethylene.

EVA Foam Application

EVA Foam Application

 

EVA Foam Application:  is an elastomeric polymer that produces materials which are “rubber-like” in softness and flexibility. This is distinct from a thermoplastic, in that the material is cross-linked, and thus difficult to recycle. EVA has a distinctive vinegar-like odor and is competitive with rubber and vinyl products in many applications.

EVA Foam Application

Running involves a series of heel-strikes on the ground. The midsole foams of running shoes, by absorbing energy, limit the peak impact force in the heel-strike. A finite element analysis (FEA) was made of the stress distribution in the heelpad and a running shoe midsole, using heelpad properties deduced from published force-deflection data, and measured foam properties. The heelpad has a lower initial shear modulus than the foam (100 vs. 1050 kPa), but a higher bulk modulus. The heelpad is more non-linear, with a higher Ogden strain energy function exponent than the foam (30 vs. 4). Measurements of plantar pressure distribution in running shoes confirmed the FEA. The peak plantar pressure increased on average by 100% after 500 km run. In compressive impact tests the foams, of density around 50 kg m(-3), have higher initial yield stresses than Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) foam of the same density. The conventional cross-linking method using an electron beam for polyolefin foams is highly efficient, but the drawbacks are: costly equipment, nonuniform crosslinking, uneven dispersion of chemical foaming agents and additives, and relatively low gel content, which affect physical properties of the foam. In this paper, low density polyethylene (LDPE) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) were blended in an 80/20 ratio, and this noncrosslinked foam was exposed to various doses of electron beam irradiation in air. The foam was made using isobutane as the blowing agent.

 

Properties:

  1. Material: Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam
  2. Purity: >99.9%
  3. Density: 30 kg/m3
  4. Surface Hardness: 40 °C
  5. Tensile Strength: 780 Kpa
  6. Thermal Conductivity: 0.038 W/mK
  7. Compression Strength: 78 Kpa
  8. Include light weight
  9. Shock resistance

 

Application:

  1. EVA Copolymer/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Foams
  2. EVA Foam used mouth guards
  3. Eva foam running shoes
  4. Eva foam used in sports

EVA Foam Application: EVA Copolymer/Multiwalled CNT Nanocomposite Foams

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposite foams were prepared to improve tensile properties without sacrificing elongation at break and compression set of EVA foams by using melt compounding method, the most compatible with current industrial applications. Without any modification of MWCNT and special treatment, a significant improvement of the mechanical properties including elastic recovery was observed for the EVA/MWCNT foams with only 1 phr MWCNT. Improvement of tensile strength and modulus without sacrificing elongation at break and elastic recovery of EVA/MWCNT foams with 1 phr MWCNT may have significant implications toward the elastomeric applications.

 

EVA Foam Application: EVA Foam Used Mouth Guards

EVA Foam Application: Energy absorption is an important characteristic of mouth guards worn to reduce injuries to the orofacial complex in contact sports. Mouth guards reduce impact forces to teeth and jaws as well as reduce lacerations to soft tissues. Concussion is also claimed to be reduced in contact sports in those wearing mouth guards. Better performance of mouth guards through improved energy absorption and reduction in transmitted forces can be observed when mouth guards are thicker or when there are air inclusions in the mouth guard material. However, thicker mouth guards result in impaired speech and reduced respiratory efficiency. Air inclusions have been shown to improve energy absorption, reduce transmitted forces, and eliminate rebound within impacts with no corresponding increase in the

Thickness of the mouthguard. Similar improvements in energy absorption from impacts have been shown with modern athletic shoes and “bubble wrap” packaging of fragile goods, both of which have air or gas inclusions in their construction. advantage of an EVA foam would be a reduction in the weight of the polymer in a mouth guard, which could lead to savings in manufacturing costs by reducing the amount of raw material used. Questions could arise, however, about the “mouldability”, durability, finishing requirements, and the consequent problems with oral bacteria if the foam inclusions of the mouthguard are breached. Most important, however, is whether foamed EVA would provide improved performance in mouthguards through greater energy absorption and reduced transmitted forces from impacts capable of breaking teeth.

EVA Foam Application: EVA Foam Running Shoes

They were all rearfoot strikers, did not use orthotics, and reported no lower extremity injury. The response of EVA foam midsoles could be modelled in compression and tension using a single modulus version of the Ogden hyperfoam material. The problems tackled were axisymmetric, with a vertical axis of rotational symmetry. The large deformation option is used. Meshing was chosen to maximise the computation stability; nevertheless most simulations became unstable at high deformations. The thin cell faces of EVA foam are not perfect for containing air. As the air provides a major shock cushioning mechanism in the foam, its loss reduces the midsole performance. There is a complex interaction between the heel-strike stress field in the foam and the gas diffusion from the foam. Although the gas diffusion can be modelled during uniform creep loading, it is not yet possible to consider all aspects of the stress-diffusion interaction.

 

EVA Foam Application: EVA Foam Used in Sports

Injuries caused by impact and contact are common sports such as football and rugby and more dangerous sports such as motor racing, boxing and skiing. Often, contact with other people can cause an athlete to become off balance, or change direction quickly; this causes damage to the connective tissue; powerful direct contact may also cause a joint to become displaced. Impact injuries usually include spinal injuries, ligament and tendon damage, fractures and head and spinal injuries. They also added that although injuries are a part and parcel of contact sports; measures if taken appropriately would reduce the likelihood of suffering from an injury. Protective clothing is often worn in more dangerous sports to protect the body from injury; this can often be seen in rugby and boxing. Some of the common injuries in most widely played sport activitie. Impact injuries can damage to the connective tissue, and cause superficial injuries such as cuts, bruises, and most fractures which can be treated with simple medication and will heal over time; however head and spinal injuries should be treated as emergency medical condition.

EVA Foam Application: Use of EVA Foam

  1. Eva foam used in the place of rubber &vinyl products in electrical application.
  2. Eva foam used with wax & resin additives to make hot-melt adhesives, hot glue sticks.
  3. Eva foam used for hockey pads , boxing gloves & helmets.
  4. Eva foam used in shoes to absorb impact shock because it is light weight & glossy finishes.
  5. Eva foam use for healthcare (e.g. exercise mats, orthotic supports, orthopedic shoes).
  6. Eva foam used in automotive (e.g. Interior padding, carpet underlay & gaskets &seats, headliners).
  7. Eva foam used in deck tread, life jackets & life buoys.
  8. Eva foam used in display packing foam.
EVA Foam Application

EVA Foam Application

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Aluminum Metal Foam

Aluminium Metal Foam Application

Aluminum foam can be manufactured applying a variety of methods including direct foaming of aluminum alloy melts and advanced metal powder processing. Complex-shaped foam components and 3D-shaped sandwich panels consisting of foam cores and aluminum face sheets can be produced. The application potential of these materials is discussed for various fields, namely light-weight construction, crash energy absorption and thermal or sound insulation. Various case studies are presented—a lifting arm for a lorry, a crash box for a car, an impact energy absorber for a tram, a motor bracket for a car and a transverse beam for a machine. Ultra-light metal foams became an attractive research field both from the scientific and industrial applications view points. Closed-cell metal foams, in particular aluminum alloy (Al-alloy) ones can be used as lightweight, energy-absorption and damping structures in different industrial sectors, detaining an enormous potential when transportation is concerned. Aluminum foams are isotropic porous materials with several unusually properties, that make them especially suited for some applications. Due to their low densities between 0.3 g/cm3 and 0.8 g/cm3 the foams can float in water (in case of closed porosity). Foams exhibit a reduced conductivity for both heat and electricity. The strength is lower than conventional dense aluminum and declines with decreasing density. Foams are stable at temperatures up to the melting point. They are incombustible and non-toxic.

Aluminum Metal Foam

Aluminum Metal Foam

 

Properties:

  1. Conductivity
  2. Sound-proofing properties
  3. Aluminum Metal Foam Density: 1 to 0.35 g/cm³
  4. Aluminum Metal Foam Pore Size: 2-11 mm (Closed Cell)
  5. Aluminum Metal Foam Porosity: 60-90%
  6. Aluminum Metal Foam Compressive Strength: 44 Mpa
  7. Aluminum Metal Foam Size: 100 x 100 x 5 mm
  8. Heat Resistivity: 660 °C
  9. Resistivity: 100 Times over Metal Aluminum

 

APPLICATIONS:

  1. Automotive applications
  2. Aluminum foams in aerospace applications
  3. Aluminum foams in ships
  4. Foamed aluminum cores for aluminum casting
  5. Aluminum foams in engineering
  6. Aluminum foams in the household and furniture industry

Automotive applications:
There is a move towards reducing weight in vehicles. Another requirement is the improvement of the passive safety of cars, which is mainly influenced by the choice of materials and the car design.
Also important are all aspects of materials recycling. The background  the good energy and sound absorbing properties of the aluminum foam support the use of foams in passenger cars. Three main applications of metallic foams can become important in a car – energy absorption, lightweight construction and insulation.

  1. The first application is illustrated in the case of crash-absorbers against side and frontal impact. In fact, many of today’s vehicles include deformable energy absorbing elements within the vehicle structure. These elements, which represent the crushable zone, have to absorb the collision energy for the rigid passenger cell protection. These elements (e.g. fenders and side members, pillars next to car doors, or other elements, which are in danger of buckling or being compressed or have to absorb a large amount of energy) can be filled with aluminum foams (see examples for foam filling of profiles in Figure 1410.03.04). In trucks aluminum foams can be used for stiffening of the underside protection. With these elements it will be possible to induce a controlled, programmed deformation of the crash zone in cars with maximum energy absorption. This is important especially in the case of the new compact city cars, where the realization of such energy absorbers is a difficult task because of the limited space available.
  2. The good relation between weight and stiffness supports the use of foams for large area light-weighting automobile body sheets and structural parts, that are used in areas of the cars with increased requirements on stability. Examples are trunk lids, engine hoods and sliding roofs. All these parts should suffer no elastic deformations caused by the air stream. Vibrations must be avoided. Aluminum foams with their good insulation properties can be a good solution for these components. Another example is the stiffening of convertibles and the bodies of commercial vehicles.

 

Aluminum Metal Foam: Aluminum foams in aerospace applications

Due to its lightweight aluminum foams can become important for the aerospace industry. For example, aluminum foam sheets or sandwich panels could replace the expensive honeycomb structures. This would have several advantages, for example reduced costs. Another important advantage is the isotropy of the properties of such panels and the absence of any kind of adhesive bonding. The latter could help to maintain the integrity of the structure in cases of fire. However, an important issue, which is addressed in current investigations, is the fatigue behavior of aluminum foams and panels.

 

Aluminum Metal Foam: Aluminum foams in ships

Aluminum Metal Foam: In ships the need for lightweight materials is also important. But, in comparison with cars, a high flexibility of materials processing is needed, because ships are not built in large series and are not built with highly standardized parts. Therefore aluminum foams or panels can have great advantages. Prerequisite for the use will the development of suitable fastening elements and the investigation of corrosion of aluminum foams in salt water. First investigations on closed-cell-PM-foams showed, that a sodium chloride solution could enter only the uppermost layer of the foam without causing structural defects.

Aluminum Metal Foam: Foamed aluminum cores for aluminum casting

Casting that are used in cars are often made with weight-saving cavities. These cavities can be filled with aluminum foams in such a way that foamed parts replace the sand cores, which is usually used for the preparation of cavities. The foam parts does not have to be removed after casting. This method accomplishes closed lightweight sections in the casting and creates internal configurations (stiffeners) not feasible with sand cores. Also relatively small cross-sections can be filled up with foamed cores. Besides the additional stiffening effect the use of foams has several other advantages, for example an increase of the capability of castings to absorb crash energy. They suppress noise and vibration of the structure.

Aluminum Metal Foam: Aluminum foams in engineering

Aluminum Metal Foam : it is possible to make light-weighing rolls with aluminum foam filling. Foams can also serve as heat exchangers, heat shields, filters or carriers for catalysts. Another possibility is the use as electromagnetic wave shielding materials. Foams can be used for ceilings and walls of rooms containing electronic equipment.

Aluminum foams in the household and furniture industry

Aluminum Metal Foam :Because of its interesting, unique surface aluminum foam offer a great potential for designers. It can be used for lamps, tables or household articles and accessories. In combination with wood the surface of the aluminum foam can bring new effects into a room. Furniture made out of foam is light weighing, which can be a great advantage in offices or at fairs and exhibitions. Building and construction applications are good possibilities for the use of aluminum foams mainly because of their good fire penetration resistance and thermal insulation properties. For example foam parts or foam-filled panels can be used as elements in facades on the outside of buildings or wall coverings inside of buildings. In both cases aluminum foams can serve as energy saving elements because of their good thermal insulation properties. Aluminum foams panels can be used as sound absorbing materials in railway tunnels, under highway bridges or inside of building. As an example Figure an Alporas-foam laid on the underside of an elevated expressway for noise absorption. A sound absorbing structure is laid on a noise reflecting surface of an elevated viaduct to absorb the vehicle noise, thus relieving the noise nuisance to the neighborhood residents.

Another field of application are light-weighing structural elements. These can be used for mobile bridges. Aluminum foams or foam panels could also be used for reducing the energy consumption of elevators by a lightweight construction. Due to its lightweight, aluminum foams are easy to handle. They can be easily installed without mechanical lifting equipment. This is perfect for high locations, for example ceilings, walls and roofs.

Aluminum Metal Foam

Aluminum Metal Foam

Contact Us for Aluminum Metal Foam

From us, you can easily purchase nano products at great prices. Place online order and we will dispatch your order through DHL, FedEx, UPS. You can also request for a quote by mailing us at sales@nanoshel.com Contact: +1 302 268 6163 (US and Europe), Contact: +91-9779550077 (India). We invite you to contact us for further information about our company and our capabilities. At Nanoshel, we could be glad to be of service to you. We look forward to your suggestions and feedback.


Nickel Foam Industrial Application

Nickel Foam Industrial Application

Nickel Foam Industrial Application- high purity nickel foam produced in a wide porosity range (~70% to 98%) and based on the structure of reticulated polymer foam. nickel foam are suitable porous three-dimensional anodes for the oxidation of organic substrates. Metal foams are metal cellular structures containing a large volume fraction of gas-filled pores. They are a relatively new class of materials, which has been developed for applications in lightweight structures. They offer low densities and, due to their high stiffness to weight ratio, they show potential for energy absorption and mechanical damping. There are two types of metal foams, open cell metal foam, where the pores do interconnect, and closed cell metal foams with sealed pores. Nickel foam possesses unique features such as exceptional uniformity, light weight, high porosity, intrinsic strength, corrosion resistance, and good electrical and thermal conductivity. Various applications are discussed below.

nickel foam industrial application

nickel foam industrial application

Properties:

  1. Material: Nickel foam
  2. Nickel Metal Foam Surface Density: 346g/m^2
  3. Nickel Metal Foam Purity: ≥99.9%
  4. Nickel Metal Foam Length: 1m
  5. High porosity: ≥95%
  6. Ultra light material
  7. High specific surface area
  8. Heat exchange
  9. Flow diffusion

Applications:

  • Nickel foam for battery electrode
  • Nickel foam is use in fuel cell
  • Nickel foam is use in catalyst materials
  • Use as a filter material for gas and liquid
  • Lightweight optics

Battery electrodes:

Ni foam has been predominantly used in battery electrodes, especially for NiMH batteries. Such rechargeable batteries have found applications extensively for portable computers, cellular phones, battery-powered scooters, bicycles and hybrid electric vehicles effective surface area of the electrode active materials could thus be increased to enhance the high power capability. The uniform structure has now been extended to a wide range of specifications including 0.2 – 2.6 g/cm3 densities and 450 to 3200 µm pore sizes foams. Nickel foam is mainly used for battery electrode material is particularly useful for NiMH batteries, the rechargeable battery is widely used in the portable computer, mobile phone, electric scooter, electric bicycle, hybrid cars.

Fuel cell applications:

Ni is active in hydrogen dissociation at elevated temperatures. This makes Ni foam a potential material as an electro catalyst in molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), which normally operate at 550-700ºC. Chemical environment of MCFC fuel cells is such that nickel can be used for both electrodes. Nickel Foam Industrial Application with wide range of density specifications provides a good structure for these applications as it offers high porosity, good gas distribution characteristics and thermal stability. Ni foam may find applications as bipolar plate enhancement material for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), electrode interconnectors for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and electrode materials in electrolysis such as hydrogen electrolyzes. It may also be enhanced in surface area for potential use in steam reforming reactions to supply hydrogen or syngas for fuel cells.

Molten carbonate fuel cell usually work temperature between 550-700 DEG C, Nickel foam can become the electro catalyst for molten carbonate fuel cell. Nickel foam can be used for proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) of the battery producing bipolar plate material modification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) of the relay feeder, electrolysis electrode materials (such as in water electrolyses environment). To increase the surface area but also can be used for the generation of fuel cell with hydrogen and synthesis gas.

 Catalyst materials:

Due to the unique open cell structure, low pressure drop, intrinsic strength and resistance to thermal shock, nickel foam industrial application has potential as a catalyst support for automotive catalytic converters and catalytic combustion, and for catalytic filters for diesel engine particulates. Its high thermal conductivity may be superior to ceramic monolith supported catalysts in low light-off conversion of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons during engine cold start. In this sense, Ni foam may be comparable or superior to high temperature steels as catalyst supports. Other catalyst applications of nickel foam may include foam supported catalysts for Fisher-Tropsch reaction, steam reforming and hydrogenation of fine chemicals.

 Electrochemical cells:

Nickel Foam Industrial Application in classical filter-press type electrochemical cells. For this purpose the Electro SynCell, commercialized by Electrocell AB, has been used. The interest of using metallic foams linked to a classical plane plate is to improve the performance of the electrochemical cell by increasing the electrode surface area. Moreover, for some industrial applications it is possible to use the cell without a membrane. In the proposed configuration, the working electrodes consist of metallic foam linked to a plane plate and the auxiliary electrode is simply a plane plate. The imbalance between the surface areas of working and auxiliary electrodes allows operation with a single hydraulic circuit. This paper, focuses on the study of residence time distribution and pressure drop in order to compare the flow behavior with that in a classical configuration.

 

Other opportunities:

Owing to its uniform 3-D structure with custom porosity, nickel foam may find applications as a filter material. Its magnetic properties may make it suitable as a magnetic flux conductor for handling magnetic particles in a fluid. Other applications may include hydrogen storage medium, heat exchanger medium, and even in arts owing to its unique shaping capabilities, wide porosity range and environmental stability.

Nickel Foam Industrial can be used as filter material, processing of magnetic particles in the fluid magnetic conductor. Other applications include applications in hydrogen storage media, heat exchange medium.

Nickel Foam Industrial  operation at present development situation is good, the enterprise is gradually to the industrialization, large-scale development. Nickel foam is a kind of excellent sound absorption material, sound absorption coefficient is higher in the high frequency; through the design of sound absorption structures can improve the sound absorption property in low frequency. Nickel foam is one of the manufactures of nickel cadmium battery and hydrogen nickel battery electrode materials for the best. Through the test developed by electrodepositing process technology for preparing Nickel foam. The base material is open celled foams and porous by chemical plating, vacuum plating, and leaching of conductive adhesive three methods can produce conductive layer, the nickel pre plating can be in sulfate nickel plating solution in nickel plating thickness general, after calcinations, reduction and annealing process can get nickel foam industrial application with excellent performance.

nickel foam industrial application

nickel foam industrial application

Contact Us for Nano Products Nickel Foam Industrial Application

From us, you can easily purchase nano products at great prices. Place online order and we will dispatch your order through DHL, FedEx, UPS. You can also request for a quote by mailing us at sales@nanoshel.com Contact: +1 302 268 6163 (US and Europe), Contact: +91-9779550077 (India). We invite you to contact us for further information about our company and our capabilities. At Nanoshel, we could be glad to be of service to you. We look forward to your suggestions and feedback.


Copper Foam Structures

Copper Foam Structures

  1. Copper form is a soft, malleable andductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity.
  2. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color.
  3. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various MetalAlloys.
  4. It can be used Such as #Electrode materials #catalyze #Thermal conductive materials #Filtering material #Fluid pressure buffer material etc.
  5. The size can be different, such as 500mm*500mm*10mm; 500mm*500mm*15mm; 1000mm*500mm*10mm etc the core size usually is 5mm, the length, width and thickness can be made according your specific needs.
  6. Copper foam has excellent #Thermal conductivity; thermal heat can be widely used in electrical / electrical and electronic components.
Copper Foam Structures

Copper Foam Structures

Open-pore copper foams:

The use of modern porous materials in different engineering applications necessitates more concentration on open interconnected metallic foams with acceptable mechanical behavior. In this study, openpore copper foams of different porosity percentages with various pore sizes were synthesized through lost carbonate sintering method and then characterized. The effect of copper mechanical pre-activation treatment on flexural strength of the foams was also investigated. The results showed that foams produced by mechanically activated copper powder (350 rpm, 5 h, BPP of 5) have a higher structural integrity, thus enjoying more enhanced mechanical strength relative to specimens without any pre-activation. This may be due to stronger struts mainly resulting from efficient filling of matrix powder between space holder particles. The response surface methodology was also used to examine the effects of carbonate volume percentage and its particle size on the flexural behavior of mechanically optimized foams. Based on the analysis of variances, it was found that the mechanical properties of the foams would improve as a consequence of porosity reduction, while similar relation also exists as average pore sizes decrease. Porous metallic materials generally known as metal foams have been of increasing interest during recent years due to their unique properties such as high specific strength, heat, electrical conductivity. Based on its openings and connectivity, porosity in metal foams could be divided into closed and open pores. The metallic foams with open interconnected pores are multi-functional, especially for mass and heat transfer applications. For instance, open pores metallic foams with cell sizes of sub-millimeter were successfully used in fuel cell systems. In spite of the numerous methods available for the production of porous metals, only a few are capable of creating open cell foams. In this case, powder metallurgical (PM) processes based on using space holder agent were successfully employed to produce partially open-pore metal foams. Wide range of materials like organic, inorganic  and ceramic particles or even metallic hollow spheres  could be used as spacer agent in PM space holder techniques.

These cellular structural properties could be controlled by selecting proper parameters in PM method. For instance, foam’s porosity percentage, e, and also its average pore diameter, dpore, are closely dependent on the volume percentage of sacrificial space holding material, fc, and its particle size, dc, respectively . So, enhancing the mechanical strength of  PM porous products is guaranteed by proper adjusting of process factors.  It seems that more efforts should be made to improve open cellular metallic foams’ mechanical behavior for high technological applications.

Open Pore Copper Foams to Use as Bipolar Plates

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks contain fluid flow plates, generally known as bipolar plates; which are traditionally made from graphite based materials. Brittleness of graphite enforces manufacturers to fabricate bipolar plates in great thicknesses which severely reduce the stack’s power to weight ratio. Therefore, recently the use of low permeability open pore metallic foams has been attended. After three-point flexural tests and air permeability measurements, it was shown that powder metallurgy method based on using space holder agent has high capability to produce functionally graded foams in order to substitute conventional stack fluid field plates.

 

The permeability analysis of Copper Foam Structures proved PM process based on using space holder materials for. New materials and synthesizing metal foams with appropriate cell bipolar permeability values, below 10 m , to use as FFPs in plates. Measurement of foams flexural properties, as a criterion of their mechanical behavior, showed a considerable increment of bending strength with decreasing of . d did not reveal any significant effect on foams cell mechanical properties. This might be due to the anisotropic nature of the foams produced by LCS method.

Copper foam as a high-capacity and long-life anode for lithium-ion batteries

Copper Foam Structures were deposited on Copper Foam Structures by a floating catalyst method, and a Mn3O4 layer was then coated onto the deposited CNFs via a hydrothermal process based on the redox reaction of carbon and potassium permanganate. The obtained architecture of Mn3O4-coated CNFs (CNFs@Mn3O4) on Cu foam was directly used as an anode for lithium-ion batteries without using any binder or conducting additive. The anode showed high reversible capacity, good cycle stability and superior rate capability. A reversible capacity of up to 1210.4 mA h g1 was obtained after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g1 . When the current density increased to 5000 mA g1 , it could deliver a capacity of more than 300 mA h g . The excellent electrochemical performance could be attributed to the unique morphology of the CNFs@Mn3O4 nanocomposites, which can buffer the volume change, decrease the contact resistance, shorten the ionic diffusion path and make the electron transport more efficient. e lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been applied in portable electronics, electric vehicles, implantable medical devices and others.

Copper foam batteries:  A new, cheaper-to-manufacture, faster-to-charge, and longer-lasting alternative to the batteries in common use today — may soon be headed.  The limitations of current battery technology, there should be a market for the new Copper Foam Structures batteries. “I think almost any application in technology you can think of is currently limited by the battery. “But two main issues limit the functionality of modern batteries — low energy density and low power density.” “the first true 3-D battery that can be charged and discharged, and that will hold a charge”—in other words, that fills the basic requirements of a conventional battery. 3-D batteries could be cheaper to make, faster to charge, safer, smaller, and less environmentally toxic than conventional batteries.

Application

  1. An electrode material excellent conductive properties of the foam can be widely used in Copper Foam Structures-nickel-zinc batteries, electric double layer capacitor electrode skeleton new battery materials, the current bubble has received a number of copper -nickel-zinc battery manufacturer to try and put volume use, while the bubble copper is expected as the electric double layer capacitor electrode current collector obtained promote the application.
  2. Catalyst In many organic reactions to replace the direct use with Copper Foam Structures punching copper large specific surface area, as a catalyst for chemical reactions; Copper Foam Structures as a photo catalytic air purification carrier, also gained more successful applications.
  3. Use Copper Foam Structures excellent thermal performance and the apparent permeability, made into electrical, electronic cooling material. Silencer and shielding materials. Copper surface acoustic foam diffusely reflected, and through the expansion silencer, silencers and other porous principle, to achieve silencing effect; Shielding properties of copper and silver close, is an excellent electromagnetic shielding material.
  4. Filter material excellent structural characteristics and harmless to human basic copper metal foam products as medical filter material, also received a successful application; While copper foam applications in water purification device also has a good future.
  5. Copper Foam Structures with highly open porous walls have been successfully sculptured using the gas evolved in an electrochemical deposition process. The pore sizes and wall structures of the foams are tunable by adjusting the deposition conditions. In particular, the reduction in pore size is a result of lowering hydrophobic force of the generated hydrogen gas by adding bubble stabilizer (e.g., acetic acid) that suppresses the coalescence of bubbles, while the decrease in branch size in the foam wall is a consequence of the catalytic effect of chloride ions (added to the deposition bath) on the copper deposition reaction.
Copper Foam Structures

Copper Foam Structures

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