Chromium Carbide Application
Chromium Carbide is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in Group 6. It is a steely-grey, lustrous, hard and brittle metal which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing, and has a high melting point. Chromium metal is of high value for its high corrosion resistance and hardness.
Chromium Carbide is an excellent refractory ceramic material known for its hardness. Chromium carbide nanoparticles are manufactured by the process of sintering. They appear in the form of orthorhombic crystal, which is a rare structure. Some of the other notable properties of these nanoparticles are good resistance to corrosion and ability to resist oxidation even at high temperatures. These particles have the same thermal coefficient as that of steel, which gives them the mechanical strength to withstand stress at the boundary layer level. Chromium belongs to Block D, Period 4 while carbon belongs to Block P, Period 2 of the periodic table.
Wear Resistant Coatings
Chromium Carbide are hard and their general use is to provide hard wear-resistant coatings on parts that need to be protected. When combined with a protective metal matrix, corrosion-resistant as well as wear-resistant coatings can be developed that are easy to apply and cost effective. These coatings are applied by either welding or thermal spray. When combined with other carbides, chromium carbide can be used to form cutting tools.
Chromium Carbide welding electrodes are increasingly used instead of the earlier ferrochrome/carbon-containing electrodes, as they give superior and more consistent results. In ferrochrome/carbon-containing welding electrodes, chromium carbide is created during the welding process to provide a hard wear resistant layer. However, the formation of the carbides is determined by the precise conditions in the weld and therefore there can be variation between welds which is not seen with electrodes containing chromium carbide. This is reflected in the wear resistance of the weld deposit. Using the dry sand rubber wheel test, wear rates of welds deposited from ferrochrome/carbon electrodes have been found to be up to 250% greater compared to chromium carbide.
Chromium Carbide Application: The trend in the welding industry, which is moving from the use of stick electrodes to flux cored wire is benefiting chromium carbide. Chromium carbide is used almost exclusively in flux cored wire instead of high carbon ferrochrome as it does not suffer from the dilution effect caused by the extra iron in the high Chromium Carbide ferrochrome. This means that a coating containing a greater number of hard chromium carbide particles can be produced, which exhibits greater wear resistance. Hence, as a switch from stick electrodes to flux cored wire takes place due to the benefits of automation and higher productivity associated with flux cored wire welding technology, the market for chromium carbide increases. Typical applications for this are the hard facing of conveyor screws, fuel mixer blades, pump impellers and general applications in which erosive abrasion resistance is required.
Thermal Spray Applications
In thermal spray applications chromium carbide is combined with a metal matrix such as nickel chrome. There is typically a 3:1 ratio by weight of Chromium Carbide to metal matrix. The metal matrix is present to bond the carbide to the substrate that has been coated and to provide a high degree of corrosion resistance. The combination of corrosion and wear resistance means that the thermally sprayed CrC-NiCr coatings are suitable as a barrier for high temperature wear. It is for this reason that they are finding increasing application in the aerospace market. Typical uses here are as coatings for rod mandrels, hot forming dies, hydraulic valves, machine parts, wear protection of aluminium parts and general applications with good corrosion and abrasion resistance at temperatures up to 700-800°C.
Chrome Plating Alternative
A new application for thermally sprayed coatings is as replacements for hard chrome plating. Hard chrome plating can produce a wear resistant coating with good surface finish at low costs. The chromium coating is obtained by submerging the item to be coated in a tank of chemical solution containing chromium. An electric current is then passed through the tank causing the chromium to deposit onto the part and form a coherent coating. However, there are growing environmental concerns associated with the disposal of the effluents from the used plating solution and these concerns have caused the cost of the process to increase.
Chromium Carbide-based coatings have a wear resistance which is between two and a half and five times better than hard chrome plating and do not suffer from effluent disposal problems. They are therefore finding increasing use at the expense of hard chrome plating, particularly if wear resistance is important or if a thick coating is required on a large part. This is an exciting and rapidly growing area which will become more important as the cost of complying with environmental legislation becomes greater.
The predominant material in a cutting tool is tungsten carbide powder, which is sintered with Chromium Carbide to produce extremely hard cutting tools. In order to improve the toughness of these cutting tools, titanium carbide, niobium carbide and chromium carbide are added to the tungsten carbide. The role of chromium carbide is to prevent grain growth during sintering (a form of grain refinement). Otherwise, excessively large crystals, which would be detrimental to the toughness of the cutting tool, would develop during the sintering process. It is no exaggeration to say that modern cutting tools could not achieve their current performance without the additives.
Chromium Carbide coatings are integrated onto the surface of a part it improves the wear- resistance and corrosion-resistance of the part, and maintains these properties at elevated temperatures.
Chromium Carbide Diamalloy powders are characterized by their ability to provide wear, oxidation and hot corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. The addition of NiCr cladding improves corrosion properties. Higher NiCr content results increased fracture toughness of the coatings.
Chromium Carbide Application
- Recommended for severe abrasive and erosive wear applications where Chromium Carbide Application cannot be used at temperatures up to 870 °C (1600 °F).
- Chromium Carbide Application Diamalloy 3007 is used in industry for its fretting wear properties at elevated temperatures.
- Best performance of the coating is achieved using the HVOF spray process.
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