Monthly Archives: July 2016

Chromium Carbide Application

Chromium Carbide Application


Chromium Carbide Application

Chromium Carbide is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in Group 6. It is a steely-grey, lustrous, hard and brittle metal which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing, and has a high melting point. Chromium metal is of high value for its high corrosion resistance and hardness.

Chromium Carbide Application

Chromium Carbide is an excellent refractory ceramic material known for its hardness. Chromium carbide nanoparticles are manufactured by the process of sintering. They appear in the form of orthorhombic crystal, which is a rare structure. Some of the other notable properties of these nanoparticles are good resistance to corrosion and ability to resist oxidation even at high temperatures. These particles have the same thermal coefficient as that of steel, which gives them the mechanical strength to withstand stress at the boundary layer level. Chromium belongs to Block D, Period 4 while carbon belongs to Block P, Period 2 of the periodic table.

Chromium Carbide Application

Chromium Carbide Application

Wear Resistant Coatings

Chromium Carbide are hard and their general use is to provide hard wear-resistant coatings on parts that need to be protected. When combined with a protective metal matrix, corrosion-resistant as well as wear-resistant coatings can be developed that are easy to apply and cost effective. These coatings are applied by either welding or thermal spray. When combined with other carbides, chromium carbide can be used to form cutting tools.

Welding Electrodes

Chromium Carbide welding electrodes are increasingly used instead of the earlier ferrochrome/carbon-containing electrodes, as they give superior and more consistent results. In ferrochrome/carbon-containing welding electrodes, chromium carbide is created during the welding process to provide a hard wear resistant layer. However, the formation of the carbides is determined by the precise conditions in the weld and therefore there can be variation between welds which is not seen with electrodes containing chromium carbide. This is reflected in the wear resistance of the weld deposit. Using the dry sand rubber wheel test, wear rates of welds deposited from ferrochrome/carbon electrodes have been found to be up to 250% greater compared to chromium carbide.

Chromium Carbide Application: The trend in the welding industry, which is moving from the use of stick electrodes to flux cored wire is benefiting chromium carbide. Chromium carbide is used almost exclusively in flux cored wire instead of high carbon ferrochrome as it does not suffer from the dilution effect caused by the extra iron in the high Chromium Carbide ferrochrome. This means that a coating containing a greater number of hard chromium carbide particles can be produced, which exhibits greater wear resistance. Hence, as a switch from stick electrodes to flux cored wire takes place due to the benefits of automation and higher productivity associated with flux cored wire welding technology, the market for chromium carbide increases. Typical applications for this are the hard facing of conveyor screws, fuel mixer blades, pump impellers and general applications in which erosive abrasion resistance is required.

Thermal Spray Applications

In thermal spray applications chromium carbide is combined with a metal matrix such as nickel chrome. There is typically a 3:1 ratio by weight of Chromium Carbide to metal matrix. The metal matrix is present to bond the carbide to the substrate that has been coated and to provide a high degree of corrosion resistance. The combination of corrosion and wear resistance means that the thermally sprayed CrC-NiCr coatings are suitable as a barrier for high temperature wear. It is for this reason that they are finding increasing application in the aerospace market. Typical uses here are as coatings for rod mandrels, hot forming dies, hydraulic valves, machine parts, wear protection of aluminium parts and general applications with good corrosion and abrasion resistance at temperatures up to 700-800°C.

Chrome Plating Alternative

A new application for thermally sprayed coatings is as replacements for hard chrome plating. Hard chrome plating can produce a wear resistant coating with good surface finish at low costs. The chromium coating is obtained by submerging the item to be coated in a tank of chemical solution containing chromium. An electric current is then passed through the tank causing the chromium to deposit onto the part and form a coherent coating. However, there are growing environmental concerns associated with the disposal of the effluents from the used plating solution and these concerns have caused the cost of the process to increase.

Chromium Carbide-based coatings have a wear resistance which is between two and a half and five times better than hard chrome plating and do not suffer from effluent disposal problems. They are therefore finding increasing use at the expense of hard chrome plating, particularly if wear resistance is important or if a thick coating is required on a large part. This is an exciting and rapidly growing area which will become more important as the cost of complying with environmental legislation becomes greater.

Cutting Tools

The predominant material in a cutting tool is tungsten carbide powder, which is sintered with Chromium Carbide to produce extremely hard cutting tools. In order to improve the toughness of these cutting tools, titanium carbide, niobium carbide and chromium carbide are added to the tungsten carbide. The role of chromium carbide is to prevent grain growth during sintering (a form of grain refinement). Otherwise, excessively large crystals, which would be detrimental to the toughness of the cutting tool, would develop during the sintering process. It is no exaggeration to say that modern cutting tools could not achieve their current performance without the additives.

Chromium Carbide coatings are integrated onto the surface of a part it improves the wear- resistance and corrosion-resistance of the part, and maintains these properties at elevated temperatures.

Chromium Carbide Diamalloy powders are characterized by their ability to provide wear, oxidation and hot corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. The addition of NiCr cladding improves corrosion properties. Higher NiCr content results  increased fracture toughness of the coatings.

Chromium Carbide Application

  1. Recommended for severe abrasive and erosive wear applications where Chromium Carbide Application cannot be used at temperatures up to 870 °C (1600 °F).
  2. Chromium Carbide Application Diamalloy 3007 is used in industry for its fretting wear properties at elevated temperatures.
  3. Best performance of the coating is achieved using the HVOF spray process.
Chromium Carbide Application

Chromium Carbide Application

Contact Us for Chromium Carbide Application
From us, you can easily purchase Chromium Carbide Application at great prices. Place online order and we will dispatch your order through DHL, FedEx, UPS. You can also request for a quote by mailing us at Contact: +1 302 268 6163 (US and Europe), Contact: +91-9779550077 (India). We invite you to contact us for further information about our company and our capabilities. At Nanoshel, we could be glad to be of service to you. We look forward to your suggestions and feedback.

Activated Carbon

Activated Carbon


Activated carbon is a non-graphitic form of carbon, which could be produced by activation of any carbonaceous material such as coconut shells, bamboo, wood chips, sawdust, coal, lignite, paddy husk etc. The process of activation is carried out in two stages. The raw material is first carbonized and then activated either by chemicals or by steam to derive the highly porous structure. The two main parameters relevant to the performance of the activated carbon are namely, surface area and pore volume or structure. As to the shape of activated carbon, there is a difference between powder, granular and pelletized qualities.


Activated Carbon of three grades namely powder, granular and pelletalized finds hundreds of different applications. By chemical activation, predominantly powder activated carbons are made and these qualities are mostly used for wastewater treatment. Granular products and pellets used for gas purification are predominantly made by gas steam activation. To cite some examples from the numerous applications: decolourisation of sugar and sweeteners, drinking water treatment, gold recovery, production of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, catalytic process, off gas treatment of waste incinerators, automotive vapour filters, colour/odour correction in wines and fruit juices.


Activated Carbon

Activated Carbon

Activated Carbon offers products used in the automotive industry for evaporative emission control. Special, highly mesoporous activated carbon is used in canisters mounted within the vehicle to adsorb fuel emissions when the vehicle is turned off and to recover fuel when the vehicle is restarted. Activated carbon with very high surface area are used for cabin air filters to adsorb many odors and chemicals in order to maintain a healthy atmosphere in the vehicle.

Activated Carbon for Food Processing Industries

Activated Carbon products have wide applications in the food Industry to make the food products look good and smell good with good taste. Carbon take great care in supplying the right grades and right quality of Activated Carbon products to help the food industry to purify its products from contaminants in all stages of its production from the raw materials to the intermediates to the final products. Activated carbon products are widely used in the food and beverage industry to improve purity and desirability.

Activated Carbon products are finding many Applications in the Food Industry – Purification of Liquid Sugar, Cane sugar refining, Alcoholic Beverages, Fruit Juices, Biochemical food products.

Activated Carbon as a Catalyst

Its large surface area, purity and relative hardness, activated carbon is an ideal carrier for catalytic metals or indeed as a catalyst in its own right. Carbon produces a range of activated carbons, standard or tailor-made, which are ideally suited for use in these specific applications. Some of the applications Carbon’s activated carbons are successfully used as a catalyst are included below: Batteries – Dry cell batteries where the catalytic activity of the internal surface area of the carbon allows zinc-oxygen depolarization.

Activated Carbon for Pharmaceutical

Activated Carbon has many different uses in the medical field. The unique properties of specific activated carbons from Carbon provide superior removal of colour compounds, odour compounds, proteins and other contaminants that could be present in the raw materials, or that form during production. Activated carbon is a highly versatile material

  1. Activated carbon is used in the treatment of cholestasis during pregnancy and to lower cholesterol levels.
  2. Blood dialysis in the treatment of kidney disorders, the activated carbon is used as a filtering medium, adsorbing toxins and preventing potentially lifethreatening
  3. Pharmaceutical Activated Carbon products have a variety of Veterinary applications in treating animals.

Gas Storage

Gas adsorption system utilises the inherent properties of an activated carbon adsorbent and its general propensity for gas storage, whereby under pressurized conditions the extensively developed carbon porosity provides for greatly enhanced volume storage of either a pure gas, such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen, or a gas mixture such as air.

Activated Carbon Natural gas has been increasingly useful and important as fuel. It was also promisingly used as fuel for vehicle application. Natural gas is more advantageous than other hydrocarbon fuels because offers a greater reduction in carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and non-methane hydrocarbon emissions while having a higher thermal efficiency and practically no particulates compared to gasoline. Natural gas produces a cleaner combustion and a more efficient consumption. Natural gas is also an economic fuel for vehicle use. It is cheaper than gasoline and diesel. Currently, natural gas is compressed under high pressure in order be stored in a substantial amount. However, this storage method requires expensive and extensive high-pressure compression facility.


Activated Carbon is a form of carbon that is shot through with nanosized holes that increase the material’s surface area and allow it to catalyze more chemical reactions and store more electrical charge. “designer carbon” with greater pore connectivity and therefore greater electronic conductivity, which enables superior energy-storage performance.

The material also proved beneficial for use in supercapacitors, which boast ultra-fast charging and discharging capabilities. Electrical conductivity over electrodes made of conventional activated carbon, while also improving the power delivery rate and stability of the electrodes.

Activated Carbon is a very good adsorbent. It is produced from raw materials: charcoal, a variety of husk and high quality coal through physical and chemical methods such as, crushing, sifting, and catalyst activating, rinsing, drying and screening and series of machining processes. It has the dual characteristics of the physical and chemical adsorption, selective adsorption of various substances in the gas phase, liquid phase in order to achieve the bleaching refining, disinfection deodorant decontamination and purification.

Water treatment Activated carbon

Activated Carbon is commonly used to adsorb natural organic compounds, taste and odor compounds, and synthetic organic chemicals in drinking water treatment. Adsorption is both the physical and chemical process of accumulating a substance at the interface between liquid and solids phases. Activated carbon is an effective adsorbent because it is a highly porous material and provides a large surface area to which contaminants may adsorb. The two main types of activated carbon used in water treatment applications are granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon (PAC).

Activated Carbon filtration (AC) is effective in reducing certain organic chemicals and chlorine in water. It can also reduce the quantity of lead in water although most lead-reducing systems use another filter medium in addition to carbon. Water is passed through granular or block carbon material to reduce toxic compounds as well as harmless taste- and odor-producing chemicals. This fact sheet discusses the principles and processes of typical activated carbon filtration systems.

With excellent physical and chemical properties and huge surface area, activated carbon has been widely used in military, food, metallurgy, chemical industry, environmental protection, pharmaceutical, pharmaceutical, biological and chemical industry purification process; it can remove a variety of trace toxic and harmful chemicals. In bleaching refining processing of biological or synthetic production of food, medicines and health products, the recycling of organic volatile gases and purification, water purification treatment, activated carbon adsorption purification has become a preferred method.

Activated Carbon also has good regeneration properties and can be recycled, thus reduces operating costs and improves resource utilization. Activated carbon plays a very important role in industrial production and in people’s daily live, and has become an indispensable adsorption material in modern society.


Activated Carbon

Activated Carbon

Contact Us for Activated Carbon
From us, you can easily purchase nanomaterials at great prices. Place online order and we will dispatch your order through DHL, FedEx, UPS. You can also request for a quote by mailing us at Contact: +1 302 268 6163 (US and Europe), Contact: +91-9779550077 (India). We invite you to contact us for further information about our company and our capabilities. At Nanoshel, we could be glad to be of service to you. We look forward to your suggestions and feedback.

Carbon Fiber Application

Carbon Fiber Application

Carbon fiber

Carbon Fiber (atomic symbol: C, atomic number: 6) Carbon is a Block P, Period 2, nonmetallic element. Carbon is at the same time one of the softest (graphite) and hardest (diamond) materials found in nature. It’s most famously used as a lightweight, high-strength construction material in exotic cars and aircraft, but it’s becoming downright common these days.


  1. High strength
  2. High modulus
  3. Low density
  4. Good vibration damping
  5. Chemical Properties
  6. Chemically inert
  7. Non-corrosive
  8. High resistance against acids, alkalis and organic solvents
  9. Low thermal conductivity
  10. Light weight
Carbon Fiber

Carbon Fiber



  1. Medical
  2. Robotic
  3. Electronics
  4. Sports
  5. Aerospace
  6. Oil and Gas
  7. Marian
  8. Energy
  9. Civil Engineering
  10. 3D printing



Carbon Fiber is well suited to uses in medical facilities thanks to its X-ray permeability and non-magnetic properties. That’s why it is used, for example, in many complex medical scanning devices. It also has the perfect set of properties for sterilization, making it a mainstay in many operating theaters. Its high strength and light weight also make it ideal for use in medical aids, such as wheelchairs, beds, artificial limbs and braces, portable access ramps and much, much more.

Carbon Fiber Medical industry a prosthetic product maker and clinical service provider, developed BeBionic, a prosthetic hand having a full carbon fiber reinforced plastic body with aluminum and alloy knuckles. BeBionic works with individual motors in each finger and sensors that picks up the minute myoelectric signal produced by muscles on user’s arm, enabling amputees to perform everyday activities with greater ease.

X-Ray and Gamma Ray Applications

Carbon fiber has rapidly become one of the primary materials utilized in medical imaging, x-ray and gamma ray applications. In particular, carbon fiber provides a radiolucent material with sufficient strength and stiffness to maintain critical dimensions under load, and will not break down over time, even after high doses of x-ray and gamma ray radiation. Compared with aluminum, carbon fiber panels and support structures have substantially less attenuation of x-rays, yet can be made as stiff as aluminum, or even steel if high modulus carbon fibers are used. These attributes make carbon fiber an ideal choice for medical imaging tables, arm supports, and other similar components.

Carbon Fiber Different types of composite materials that are suitable for a wide range of applications within the medical. These materials have been exclusively designed for use in medical applications, such as components of MRI scanners and C scanners, X-ray couches, mammography plates, tables, surgical target tools and devices. They can also be used inwheelchairs and walking aids, prosthetics such as springs and orthotics like anterior foot, podiatric-correcting  in-soles and braces.


Robotic industry a worldwide industrial robot maker, uses Carbon Fiber plastics for the arm of its case packing robot. The lighter weight in the arm keeps the inertial forces low allowing it to move quicker with higher accelerations and decelerations, thereby ultimately increasing the c Industrial automation and robotics is a field starting to realize the benefits of carbon fiber designs. For many applications, the ability to reduce weight and increase structural stiffness reflects directly in faster response time and reduced motor and actuator loads. This in turn results in improved productivity and longer maintenance cycles.

Carbon Fiber materials are from the world of commercial robots.  This robot is used in the nuclear industry, airplane inspection, and many other applications where the environment is either extremely harsh to humans, or the ability to climb sideways and upside down would result in drastically reduced labor time wing.

Carbon Fiber options are available to robotics and automation designers. Using basic structural materials (flat sheets, angles, hat stiffeners, c-channels, rectangular tubes), lightweight end effectors can easily be designed and implemented, often into existing manufacturing lines with minimal other changes.


Electronics industry, computer hardware parts maker the first all carbon fiber laptop on the earth and also the worlds lightest laptop.

There are several benefits of lightweight Carbon Fiber electronics enclosures. The primary reason our customers look to carbon fiber for these applications is to reduce weight. This is particularly the case when the electronics systems are airborne or ship-based. As an example of the possible mass reduction, Carbon Fiber shock isolation cabinet. This cabinet weighs less than half of the comparable metal cabinets, yet easily passed the 100g shock testing. As a result of the lower density and increased stiffness of the carbon fiber, not only did the structure survive all impact and vibration testing, it actually performed better than the much heavier aluminum enclosures due to the high natural frequency.

Carbon Fiber reduced weight and increased natural frequency, carbon fiber electronics enclosures maintain dimensional tolerances over a much wider temperature range than plastic or metal enclosures. The thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of carbon fiber is approximately the same as Invar, thus greatly reducing thermal issues for sensitive electronics, laser, mirrors, and sensors.


Carbon Fiber Sports industry  high end triathlon and road bicycle manufacture, made triathlon bicycle, the carbon frame bicycle. The formation of the company, has been specializing in application of carbon fiber reinforced plastic for monocoque frames of its bicycles.

Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has applications in various industries including aerospace, automotive, sport, architecture, energy, electronics, medical and robotic. Below are examples of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) applications.


Aerospace industry the biggest aerospace product manufacture in the world, uses carbon fiber reinforced plastic for nearly half of airframe of its high-tech airplane.The challenge with large tools, particularly aircraft production tools, is that they can be very large, and thus heavy and difficult to move. Weight reductions up to 75% are possible in some cases when compared with older aluminum and steel tools and fixtures.

The benefits of lightweight Carbon Fiber tooling is enormous in terms of ergonomics, speed of installation and breakdown, and transportation costs. Carbon fiber tools also reduce the potential for damage to aircraft and other delicate structures.

Carbon Fiber structural components and connector systems, it is straight-forward to construct frames, mounting and locating plates, and easily disassembled lightweight tooling. If a more custom solution is needed, our in-house engineering support provides CAD, FEA, and prototyping capabilities.

Sporting Good

Carbon Fiber has always been a high performance material. Carbon fiber is an ideal material for use in virtually all high performance sports. This is especially true when it comes to sports, with the material finding use in a variety of pursuits, from motor racing to skiing, golf, fishing and tennis.

Carbon Fiber increases in popularity and falls in price, it is finding ever more applications in the widest variety of sporting goods. Carbon fiber used in many kinds of racquets, skis, snowboards, hockey sticks, fishing poles, golf clubs, bicycles, surfboards, kites, shoes and other sporting products.

Oil and Gas

The offshore oil and gas industry where this trend is driving the development of lightweight materials to replace steel.   This is especially true in deeper and more remote waters, requiring new technologies to extract oil more efficiently from existing fields. Furthermore, with higher working pressures, temperatures and more aggressive crudes being extracted, the performance requirements of materials used under water are becoming increasingly demanding.

The unique properties such as high tenacity, high strength and high-tensile modulus, carbon fiber is perfectly suited to reinforcing a wide range of deepwater products. The replacement for steel, carbon fiber enables deepwater developers to reach new depths without compromising on strength.


Carbon Fiber mostly used seas and oceans. Once an exotic, one-off material used in elite yacht racing events, carbon fiber has now found its way into the next generation of cruisers, racing vessels and even passenger ships. Carbon composite is ideally extremes of marine environments. The features heavily in masts, sail cloth, hulls, superstructures, drive shafts and propellers.


Onshore and offshore wind power is becoming a larger part of our energy mix. The greater volumes of wind power means increased demands on the components that create it. This is where Carbon Fiber comes in, enabling larger blades and a higher output capacity for each unit. It also forms parts of the flywheel in composite rotors, which are able to store more energy than aluminium or steel rotors.

Carbon Fiber is also integral in that other form of energy we reap from the sky: the sun. Solar panel frames and supporting plates can be made from carbon fiber materials.

Civil Engineering

Carbon Fiber is one of mankind’s greatest engineered materials. Carbon fiber is exceptionally versatile in the civil engineering field  it is high strength and flexibility. It can be used to restore existing structures just as efficiently as it can be used to reinforce brand. Carbon fiber laminates are widely used to improve the mechanical properties of ceilings and columns, for example. A new and fast-growing option is restoration using grid structures that can be applied with sprayed concrete.

As Carbon Fiber is a non-corroding material, concrete layers with carbon fiber can be much thinner, as there is no steel core that needs to be protected from corrosion. This dramatically reduces the quantity of concrete used in buildings, with side benefits like lower logistic costs and quicker construction and drying times. Carbon fiber is also a driver of innovation. It can be used for shielding from electromagnetic interference and its conductivity can make it an integral part of intelligent buildings, conducting heat and energy, or even transmitting information about a building’s parameters.

Graphite HOPG

Graphite HOPG

Contact Us for Carbon Fiber
From us, you can easily purchase nanomaterials at great prices. Place online order and we will dispatch your order through DHL, FedEx, UPS. You can also request for a quote by mailing us at Contact: +1 302 268 6163 (US and Europe), Contact: +91-9779550077 (India). We invite you to contact us for further information about our company and our capabilities. At Nanoshel, we could be glad to be of service to you. We look forward to your suggestions and feedback.

Graphite HOPG

Graphite HOPG


A number of technologies are developed for preparation of perfect Graphite HOPG samples to take advantage of its unique structure.


Graphite HOPG (C) Nanopowder, nanodots or nanoparticles are black spherical high surface area graphitic carbon. Graphitic nanomaterials possess excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, high surface area, excellent dimensional stability, and excellent optical properties. graphite with unique chemical and physical structure exhibits good thermal and electrical conductivity, inertness and lubricating ability, and has been widely used in industry, for example, as coating materials for electrical conductors, as graphite emulsions for kinescopes, as electromagnetic shields, as gaskets, and as absorbents for removing spilled oil from water system.

Graphite HOPG

Graphite HOPG


Graphite HOPG PGS (Pyrolytic Highly Oriented Graphite Sheet) is made of graphite with a structure that is close to a single crystal, which is achieved by the heat decomposition of polymeric film. PGS is a competitive conductive sheet with high thermal conductivity and high flexibility.


Thermal resistance represents the degree of non-conductivity of the heat. Materials with lower thermal resistance are a more efficient conductor of heat (Thermal resistance depends on hardness of, and surface condition of material as well as heat conductivity.


  1. Excellent thermal conductivity
  2. Lightweight and ultra-thin
  3. Flexible
  4. Low thermal resistance
  5. Shielding effect
  6. Maintenance-free
  7. Long life


  1. Telecommunications
  2. Lighting
  3. Computer and peripherals
  4. Power conversion
  5. Between heat generating heat sink



“Usual” Graphite HOPG, especially natural one, exhibits quite imperfect structure due to plenty of defects and inclusions. Of these, pyrolysis of organic compounds is the most common and effective. Pyrolytic graphite is a graphite material with a high degree of preferred crystallographic orientation of the c-axes perpendicular to the surface of the substrate, obtained by graphitization heat treatment of pyrolytic carbon or by chemical vapor deposition at temperatures above 2500°K. Hot working of pyrolytic graphite by annealing under compressive stress at approximately 3300°K results in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Thus Graphite HOPG is a highly-ordered form of high-purity pyrolytic graphite.

Graphite HOPG is characterized by the highest degree of three-dimensional ordering. The density, parameters of the crystal lattice, preferable orientation in a plane (0001) and anisotropy of the physical properties of the HOPG are close to those for natural graphite mineral. In particular, like mica, HOPG belongs to lamellar materials because its crystal structure is characterized by an arrangement of carbon atoms in stacked parallel layers – the two-dimensional and single-atom thick form of carbon that is called graphene. Graphite structure can be described as an alternate succession of these identical staked planes. Carbon atoms within a single plane interact much stronger than with those from adjacent planes. That explains characteristic cleaving behavior of graphite. Graphene – planar, hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms. The lattice of graphene consists of two equivalent interpenetrating triangular carbon sublattices A and B, each one contains a half of the carbon atoms. Each atom within a single plane has three nearest neighbors: the sites of one sublattice (A – marked by red) are at the centers of triangles defined by tree nearest neighbors of the other one (B – marked by blue). The lattice of graphene thus has two carbon atoms, designated A and B, per unit cell, and is invariant under 120° rotation around any lattice site. Network of carbon atoms connected by the shortest bonds looks like honeycomb. But in bulk Graphite HOPG, even in bilayer graphene, A- and B-sites C atoms become inequivalent (including those on the surface): two coupled hexagonal lattices on the neighbor graphene sheets are arranged according to Bernal ABAB stacking, when every A-type atom in the upper (surface) layer is located directly above an A-type atom in the adjacent lower layer, whereas B-type atoms do not lie directly below or above an atom in the other layer, but sit over a void – a center of a hexagon.

Graphite HOPG terminated with graphene layer is an excellent tool for using in scanning probe microscopy as a substrate or calibration standard at atomic levels of resolution. This is an easily renewable material with an extremely smooth surface. It has an ideal atomically flat surface and provides a background with only carbon in the elemental signature thus making results in a featureless background. This is vital for SPM measurements that require uniform, flat, and clean substrates, for samples where elemental analysis is to be done.

 Effective Cooling Solutions

Thermal problems have been rapidly increasing in the industry raised by the miniaturization and high density mounting of devices. New designs require a high performance level, an improved information process speed and multiple functionality. Effective thermal solutions are becoming more and more important to reach the wanted performance of applications and enable the design standards now and in the future. Panasonic offers with the PGS (Pyrolytic Highly Oriented Graphite Sheet) an ideal solution to fulfill these requirements. It is made of graphite with a structure that is close to a single crystal combining high thermal conductivity with a thin and low weight structure. Its special characteristics are high thermal conductivity (700- 1750W/mK), thin film (17-100µm), light weight (1-2g/cm3) and high flexibility in bending and shaping

Biosensor Application

Biosensors are analytical devices that combine a biologically sensitive element (biorecognition agent) with a physical or chemical transducer (e.g., noble metal or graphite electrode, optical fibers, surface acoustic wave, or calorimetric devices) to selectively detect and measure the amount of specific compounds in a given external environment. They have been widely used in the biomedical diagnostics field and the food industry. Rapid and reliable detection of specific nucleic acid sequences, proteins (e.g., antibodies and antigens), cell-surface markers, and pathogens is essential in biomedical works such as diagnosis of diseases, highthroughput assays, drug development as well as unraveling complexities of cellular chemical networks.2–5 In the food industry, applications of biosensors range from testing pesticide residues to the routine determination of analyte concentrations including glucose, sucrose, and alcohol, which can be indicators of food quality/acceptability. The ionic-complementary, self-assembling peptide EFK16-II was used to modify Graphite HOPG electrodes for enzyme-based biosensor applications. GOx could be covalently immobilized onto the peptide nanofibermodified Graphite HOPG electrode and then used as a glucose sensor.

Graphite HOPG

Graphite HOPG

Contact Us for Graphite HOPG
From us, you can easily purchase nanomaterials at great prices. Place online order and we will dispatch your order through DHL, FedEx, UPS. You can also request for a quote by mailing us at Contact: +1 302 268 6163 (US and Europe), Contact: +91-9779550077 (India). We invite you to contact us for further information about our company and our capabilities. At Nanoshel, we could be glad to be of service to you. We look forward to your suggestions and feedback.

Graphite Nanoparticles and Nanopowder

Graphite Nanoparticles and Nanopowder

Graphite Nanoparticles

Graphite Nanoparticles and Nanopowder: possess excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrical and optical properties, high surface area, excellent dimensional stability. Hence they have attracted great attention due to their promising potential for wide applications such as transistor, battery, supercapacitor, fuel cell, biosensor, composites, and so on. It is possible to develop multifunctional polymer-xGnP nanocomposites which can be suitable for the applications requiring enhanced mechanical properties and electrical and thermal conductivity.

Graphite Nanoparticles Application

Graphite Nanoparticles Application

Graphite Nanoparticles and Nanopowder: Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are of crucial importance in improving and enhancing heat transfer in electronic packages, particularly in high-density electronics at regions of exceedingly high temperatures. Commercial TIMs are generally composed of highly conductive particle fillers such as highly thermally conductive graphite and a matrix so that efficient heat transfer and good compliance of the interface material can be achieved during application. Two types of TIMs are tested based on the hybridisation of graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) and nanoparticles (NPs). The hybrid materials are fabricated via screen printing process to ensure conformal uniformity of Graphite Nanoparticles spreading on the GNPs.


  1. Resistance to Thermal Shock –Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE)
  2. High Electrical Conductivity
  3. High Structural Integrity
  4. Low Reactivity

Refractory Materials

Graphite Nanoparticles and Nanopowder: Due to its high temperature stability and chemical inertness graphite is a good candidate for a refractory material. It is used in the production of refractory bricks and in the production of “Mag-carbon” refractory bricks (Mg-C.) Graphite is also used to manufacture crucibles, ladles and moulds for containing molten metals. Additionally graphite is one of the most common materials used in the production of functional refractories for the continuous casting of steel. In this application graphite flake is mixed with alumina and zirconia and then isostatically pressed to form components such as stopper rods, subentry nozzles and ladle shrouds used in both regulating flow of molten steel and protecting against oxidation. This type of material may also be used as shielding for pyrometers.

Graphite Nanoparticles and Nanopowder: In the production of iron, graphite blocks are used to form part of the lining of the blast furnace. Its structural strength at temperature, thermal shock resistance, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion and good chemical resistance are of paramount importance in this application.  Refractory bricks for constructing materials of crucible and furnace are made with high volume impregnation of graphite. Graphite is used in metal casting and in the preparation of electrotype in printing industries.

Nuclear industry use of graphite

Graphite Nanoparticles and Nanopowder: in nuclear industry includes fabrication and lining of nuclear plant, heat moderator and reflectors, thermal column and as secondary shutdown materials. In the quest of alternative energy source, very high temperature reactor (VHRT) keeps the promise of energy supply in the near future. VHRT requires materials having exceptionally high temperature stability and high neutron absorption rate. Active research is going on to produce suitable derivatives of graphite to meet this purpose. High purity electrographite is used in large amounts for the production of moderator rods and reflector components in nuclear reactors. Their suitability arises from their low absorption of neutrons, high thermal conductivity and their high strength at temperature. Graphite finds widespread use in many areas of nuclear technology based on its excellent m operator and reflector qualities, which are combined almost uniquely with strength and high temperature stability. The function of a m operator is to slow fast neutrons to thermal v elocities at which fission in Uranium-235 and Uranium-233 are most efficient. The reflector serves to reflect neutrons, which otherwise would escape, back into t he active core region. N u clear grade graphite was developed for fission reactors. Nuclear graphite is any grade of graphite, usually electro-graphite, specifically manufactured for use as a moderator or reflector within nuclear power reactors. Graphite is an important material for the construction of both historical and modern nuclear power reactors as it is one of the purest materials manufactured at industrial scale and it retains its properties, including strength at high temperatures.

Graphite Nanoparticles and Nanopowder: Electrodes

Graphite Nanoparticles and Nanopowder: carry the electricity that melts scrap ions and steel (and sometimes direct-reduced ions DRI) in ,electric arc furnaces which are the vast majority of steel furnaces. They are made from petroleum coke after it is mixed with coal tar pitch. They are then extruded and shaped, baked to carbonize the binder (pitch), and finally graphitized by heating it to temperatures approaching 3000 °C, at which the carbon atoms arrange into graphite. They can vary in size up to 11 ft. long and 30 in. in diameter. An increasing proportion of global steel is made using electric arc furnaces, and the electric arc furnace itself is getting more efficient, making more steel per tonne of electrode.

Graphite Nanoparticles and Nanopowder

Graphite Nanoparticles and Nanopowder

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Boron Nitride Nanotubes

Boron Nitride Nanotubes

Boron Nitride Nanotube

Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) can be thought of as a tube rolled from a hexagonal sheet of boron nitride. Electronic properties can be either metallic or semiconducting depending on their chemical structure, BNNTs are expected to have over 4 eV band gaps for observed diameter ranges of over 1 nm. Chemical resistance is better for BNNTs, which are able to survive in air up to much higher temperature15.

Boron Nitride Nanotubes

Boron Nitride Nanotubes


  1. Excellent mechanical and thermal properties
  2. Efficient electrical insulators
  3. Structurally stables and inert to most chemical
  4. High resistance to oxidation


  1. Electrically insulating
  2. Polymer composites
  3. Piezoelectric
  4. Sensors
  5. Biomaterial
  6. Neutron Capture Therapy
  7. Radiation Shielding
  8. Ceramic Composites

Electrically insulating

Electrically insulating polymer/Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BN) nanocomposites are highly attractive for various applications in many thermal management fields. Thermally conductive and electrically insulating components will be possible with new BNNT ultra strong composites.  Anticipated applications range from lightweight wiring for aerospace systems, to enhanced cooling of electronic components, to high performance batteries. BNNTs are very promising nanofillers for polymeric composites, allowing the simultaneous achievement of high thermal conductivity, low CTE, and high electrical resistance, as required for novel and efficient heat-releasing materials.

Polymer composites

Boron Nitride Nanotubes (h-BN) is a layered material with planar networks of BN hexagons, which is flexible to form various nanostructures. This feature article begins with an overall introduction of BN nanostructures and their novel properties, such as electrical insulating properties, high thermal conductivity, great mechanical strength, optical properties, and so on. Then a comprehensive review of polymer composites of BN nanostructures with distinguished properties for different applications. BNNTs composites very well with wide ranges of polymers. The scope of possibilities has only begun to be explored, this arena of BNNTs enhanced composites is anticipated to have exceptional strength and thermal conductivity far beyond what currently exists in the market place. Potential applications are present  in areas such as armor including transparent armor, thin coatings, batteries and aerospace components.


Boron Nitride Nanotubes (h-BN) monolayer is piezoelectric because it is non-centrosymmetric. Piezoelectric two-dimensional boron nitride monolayer can be a candidate material for various nano-electromechanical applications. Outstanding piezoelectric and electrostrictive properties are observed for BNNTs. This combined with their exceptional strength will allow creation of nontoxic lightweight piezoelectric systems with better response and mechanical properties than current piezoelectric polymers. BNNTs will be key to enhanced sensors and robotics including applications in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, harvesting energy and satellite.

Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) have been increasingly investigated for use in a wide range of applications due to their unique physicochemical properties including high hydrophobicity, heat and electrical insulation, resistance to oxidation, and hydrogen storage capacity. They are also valued for their possible medical and biomedical applications including drug delivery, use in biomaterials, and neutron capture therapy. In this review, BNNTs synthesis methods and the surface modification strategies are first discussed, and then their toxicity and application studies are summarized.


Boron Nitride Nanotubes have been used for in wide range of applications due to their unique physicochemical properties,high hydrophobicity, biomedical, medical, neutron capture therapy and drug delivery. BNNTs increase the physical strength, durability and degradation rate. BNNTs used is polyactide-polycaprolac copolymer as additives to improve the properties of the polymers as an orthopedic implant. BNNTs play an important role to improve mechanical properties regulated the gene expression for increased cell viability for orthopedic applications.


The unique properties of the Boron Nitride Nanotubes can be combined with properties of other nanomaterials to construct sensors devices for humidity clinical diagnostics and carbon dioxide detections. A highly sensitive humidity sensors using BNNTs and silver nanoparticles for the rapid detection of humidity sensors.

Neutron Capture Therapy

The neutron absorption capacity of Boron Nitride Nanotubes the use of Boron Nitride Nanotubes as contrast agents for neutron capture therapy, which could be an innovative approach for treatment of several aggressive cancers such as cerebral glioblastoma multiform. The main purpose of the therapy was to target the tumor cells by 10B atoms. BNNTs were used as carriers of boron atoms. Boron Nitride Nanotubes to induce a hydrophilic property. The BNNTs were coated with folic acids for selective interaction with the tumor cells. The malignant glioblastoma cells were exposed to functionalized Boron Nitride Nanotubes under in vitro conditions. The use of BNNTs should be further investigated for neutron capture therapy.


High stiffness and excellent chemical stability makes Boron Nitride Nanotubes ideal material for reinforcement in polymers, ceramics and metals. BNNTs also exhibit good thermal conductivity. Boron Nitride Nanotubes multifunctional as it not only improve the stiffness of composites but also yield high thermal conductivity along with high transparency. The combination of high stiffness and high transparency is already exploited in the development of BNNTs-reinforced glass composites.18 Other intrinsic properties of BNNTs such as good radiation shielding ability, high electrical resistance and excellent piezoelectric properties are likely to promote interest for integrating them in new applications.

 Radiation Shielding

Boron Nitride Nanotubes also offer better thermal conductivity and chemical stability, which are beneficial in the fabrication of radiation shielded suits and composites. These properties have made BNNT’s a good choice for applications in radiation shielding material in the structure of space craft and organic photovoltaic packaging Material.

Boron Nitride Nanotubes can be the basis for neutron shielding composites for use in radiation shielding applications due to the presence of boron with its unique high efficiency for absorbing thermal neutrons. BNNTs can also be used for ultra violet (UV) shielding applications.Effective radiation shielding is required to protect crew and equipment in various fields including aerospace, defense, medicine and power generation. Light elements and in particular hydrogen are most effective at shielding against high-energy particles including galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles and fast neutrons.

Boron nitride nanotube biomedical

Boron Nitride Nanotubes may be useful in nano-textured cellular scaffolding for nerve and bone tissue regeneration, nanoscale drug vectors and delivery structures, and electroporation-based oncology (cancer) therapies. BNNTs due to there unque properties used for biomedical, is not cytotoxic. They are also valued for their possible medical and biomedical applications including drug delivery use for biomaterials and neutron capture therapy.

Ceramic Composites

Boron Nitride Nanotubes is a technical ceramic material that offers an unusual combination of high thermal conductivity, high temperature capability, and high electrical resistance. BNNTs is projected to be the basis for a new generation of lightweight ceramic composites that should have a wide range of high temperature applications in systems such as jet engines. Low temperature applications could include dentistry. It also can offer excellent thermal conductivity and outstanding dielectric strength.



Boron Nitride Nanotubes

Boron Nitride Nanotubes

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Boron Carbide

Boron Carbide

Boron Carbide

Boron Carbide is a high performance abrasive material with chemical and physical properties similar to diamonds, such as, chemical resistance and hardness. Boron carbide’s extra hardness gives it the nickname “Black Diamond” (It ranks third after diamond and boron nitride) and is one of the leading grinding materials.

Boron Carbide

Boron Carbide


Boron carbide nanopowder possesses high purity, narrow range particle size distribution, larger specific surface area. The melting point  of boron carbide nanopowder is up to 2350°C, boiling point higher than 3500℃ hardness up to 9.3, flexural strength ≥ 400Mpa. B4C nanoparticle does not react with acid and alkali solution. It has high chemical potential and is one of the most stable materials to acid. It has properties of anti-oxidation, high temperature resistant, high strength, high grinding efficiency, high hardness, high elastic modulus, high wear resistant, and good self-lubrication characteristics.



  1. Extreme hardness
  2. Difficult to sinter to high relative densities without the use of sintering aids
  3. Good chemical resistance
  4. Good nuclear properties
  5. Low density


Boron Carbide with its high hardness is widely used in polishing, lapping and drilling of hard metals, corundum, sapphire, glass and ceramics, as well as a loose abrasive in cutting applications such as water jet cutting. It can also be used for dressing diamond tools. Ware resistance coating due to its high hardness and excellent ware resistance coating of carbide boron nitride have been developing. Wear parts such as blasting nozzles, wire-drawing dies, powdered metal and ceramic forming dies. Nuclear applications such as reactor control rods and neutron absorbing shielding.

Bulletproof Materials

Boron carbide fibers and fiber composites may be used in the manufacture of ballistic materials for protective, durable and light weight body armor. The distinct characteristics of advanced boron carbide materials made from boon carbide ceramic fibers light weight, high hardness, wear and corrosion resistant–offer advantages over conventional materials such as plastics and metals. The carbide ceramic is used in tank armor and bulletproof vests.

Boron carbide ceramics fibers may be manufactured in large volume and formed into various shapes and sizes to allow cost effective body armor production along with custom molding in massive quantities. Also, boron carbide ceramics fibers may be formed as composites to facilitate various applications.

Vehicle/ Aircraft Armor Systems:

Boron Carbide is a material used in tank armors and bulletproof vests and as well as numerous industrial applications. Hardness of boron carbide and silicon carbide is extremely high, and density is relatively low, making it an ideal material for bullet proof vest. It has good corrosion resistance, great mechanical strength under high temperature and excellent wear resistance. Boron carbide is also the most important ceramic material for ceramic armor.

Modern military equipment must be highly exile, rapid response and provide maximum safety. Ballistic protection is one such area. Boron carbide highest protection is one such area. Boron carbide highest protection levels at lowest possible weight. It have ballistic protection of aircraft. It also used for helicopter seats. Durable and light weight boron carbide ceramics fibers and fiber composites may be incorporated into aircraft protection systems for fixed wing and rotary type aircraft. Exemplary applications include panels, tiles, components, etc. comprising boron carbide ceramics fibers. Aircraft armor systems may be used to protect personnel and cargo areas, vital equipment, controls, and the like.

Boron Carbide

Boron Carbide

Automotive Industry:

Research &Development, design and manufacturing of custom design compact B4C production of boron carbide including nuclear grade and carbide alloys for high tech composite materials and engineering ceramics. Boron carbide fibers and fiber composites may be used in automobile manufacturing, as armor plating, in the vehicle body, in the construction of engine blocks, etc. For example, in one embodiment, an engine block may include a fiber composite comprising boron carbide fiber and aluminum metal.

Boron Carbide

Boron Carbide


Erosion Resistance Systems:

Boron carbide fiber reinforced composites may be used for brake pads to reduce wear and increase stoppage power in automobiles, motorcycles, aircrafts, etc. The brake pads in high speed cars wear off very fast. The use of a high modulus ceramic fiber, such as boron carbide, in brake pads can significantly prolong the life of brake pads. Boron carbide fiber can be used in any type of break pad by uniformly distributing short or long fibers in the pad matrix and thereby reinforcing.

Boron carbide abrasiveness

Hard coatings, such as boron carbide (B4C), can quickly polish the surface of the mating material during sliding contact. The abrasiveness of such coatings directly relates to their ability to polish and sharply decreases as sliding progresses. The abrasiveness also strongly depends upon the sharpness of the individual coating asperities. Various parameters influence the rate at which the abrasiveness decreases and therefore control the run-in process. Such coatings can serve as finite-life run-in coatings for specific applications such as gears. Boron carbide is a super hard abrasive material, next only to diamond and cubic boron nitride in hardness. it simply outclasses the conventional abrasive like aluminum oxide and silicon carbide with its superlative and cost effective performance.

Boron Carbide

Boron Carbide


Boron Nitrate

Boron Nitrate

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Boron Nitrate

Boron Nitrate Nanotechnology

More recently, they have been used in various materials science applications. Nanomaterials have, by definition , one or more dimension in the nanometer <100nm range and subsequently show novel properties from their bulk materials. In recent years nanopaticles have been the center of attention.

Boron Nitrate

Boron Nitrate


Boron Nitrate is chemical element with symbol  and atomic number 5, block P group 13 and atomic weight (10.81). Boron Nitrate is electron-deficient, possessing a vacant p-orbital. It has several forms, the most common of which is amorphous boron, a dark powder, uncreative to oxygen, water, acids and alkalis. Boron Nitrate is a poor electrical conductor but is a good conductor at high temperatures.

Boron nitrate

Boron Nitrate is a chemical compound in which its chemical formula Boron Nitrate consists of equal numbers of boron and nitrogen atoms. The hardness of Boron nitride is inferior only to diamond. Because of excellent thermal and chemical stability, Boron Nitride is widely used in mechanical applications. Boron nitrate properties are high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, good thermal, shock resistance, low resistance, high electrical resistance, low dielectric constant and non toxicity.  Boron Nitrate nanostructures are expected to be useful as electronic devices, field-effect transistors, high heat-resistant semiconductors, insulator lubricants, nanowires, magnetic nanoparticles and gas storage materials. Boron Nitrate nanomaterials provide excellent protection against oxidation and wear, and they are electrical insulators. Therefore, magnetic nanoparticles coated with BN layers are very attractive candidates for applications such as MRI imaging or magnetic data storage.

Hexagonal Boron Nitrate

Hexagonal Boron Nitrate (hBN) is also known as ‘White Graphite’, has similar (hexagonal) crystal structure as of Graphite. (h-BN) is a wide band-gap material with outstanding mechanical, electrical and optical properties. It consists of a layered structure that is very similar to graphite. These single layers were formed from thin h-BN by sweeping away one layer at a time using the beam of the transmission electron microscope. Only one of the elements forms mono-vacancies that grown into beautiful triangle-shaped holes.

Boron Nitride Properties

  1. High thermal conductivity
  2. Low thermal expansion
  3. Good thermal shock resistance
  4. High electrical resistance
  5. Low dielectric constant and loss tangent
  6. Microwave transparency
  7. Non toxic
  8. Easily machined — non abrasive and lubricious
  9. Chemically inert
  10. Not wet by most molten metals
  11. Low density
  12. Corrosion resistant
  13. Excellent lubricating properties – low coefficient of friction

Boron Nitride Applications

  1. Break rings for continuous casting of metals
  2. Refractory applications
  3. Continuous casting
  4. Deck plates
  5. Heat treatment fixtures
  6. High temperature lubricant
  7. High temperature valves
  8. Molds/mold release agent
  9. Motel metals and glass casting
  10. Nozzles for transfer or atomization
  11. Laser Nozzles
  12. Nuclear Shielding

hBN optoelectronic

Hexagonal Boron Nitrate hBN  in deep UV LED optoelectronic devices will have many advantages over existing and emerging technologies. Hexagonal boron nitride optoelectronic semiconductors can be used in UV LEDs, neutron detection devices, and in graphene electronics. The deep ultraviolet light that UV LEDs create is used to kill bacteria and sanitize drinking water, surface areas, and air in a variety of industries. It is also used in protein detection; in drug discovery; and in photo catalysis, such as in photo-activated air purifiers, where light is required for the reaction to occur.

Boron Nitrate

Boron Nitrate


Military has a need for more powerful propellants with balanced/stoichiometric amounts of fuel and oxidants. Boron Nitrate (BN) is an interesting potential additive for propellants that could reduce gun wear effects in advanced propellants. Hexagonal boron nitride is a good lubricant that can provide wear resistance and lower flame temperatures for gun barrels. BN is used as propellant additives that can regenerative coat and harden steel barrels. The BN is in the form of a nano-particle that can be evenly dispersed in the propellant without negative impact on its performance. Boron Nitrate propellant shows less erosion than the baseline propellant, the sample size is clearly too small for the results to be considered proof that the BN does reduce erosion.

Boron Nitride Nuclear Power

Boron Nitrate is one of the few materials that offer electrical insulation and high thermal conductivity. BN extremely useful in high power electronic applications in heat sink and heat spreader applications. Neutron detectors made with hexagonal boron nitride will be used for radiation monitoring and detection in the nuclear power industry and in the medical industry. Neutron detectors are also used in nuclear fissile materials sensing which scans for illegal nuclear materials in shipments at port entries and at airports.

Boron Nitrate

Boron Nitrate

Bullets Coating

There are three common bullet coatings: Molybdenum Disulfide, Tungsten Disulfide and Hexagonal Boron Nitrate (HBN or “White Graphite”).Hexagonal Boron Nitride is widely used to reduce friction in industrial applications, but it has only recently been adapted to bullets. The “latest and greatest” bullet-coating material, hBN is ultra-slippery, goes on clear, and will not combine with moisture or potentially harm barrel steel. hBN also can withstand extremely high temps (1000° C). hBN will become the preferred dry lubricant for bullet-coating.


Boron Nitrate

Boron Nitrate

Boron Nitride Aerosol Spray

Boron Nitrate occupies a unique place among materials because of its unusual physical, thermal and dielectric properties. It has a hexagonal crystalline structure resembling that of graphite, and is available in solid, powder, coating or aerosol form.

Boron Nitrate aerosol spray consists of boron nitride powder dispersed in an acetone carrier and carefully compounded with a small amount of binder to facilitate adherence. A propellant that is ozone-friendly and non-carcinogenic drives the spray. However, this propellant is flammable and should be kept from open flame, sparks, heat or other ignition sources.

Boron Nitrate aerosol is a very lubricious drying spray which deposits a thin film (.0005″-. boron nitride powder on sprayed surfaces. This powder film is very lubricious, produces an excellent anti- stick surface and will also act as an oxidation up to 850°C. It is chemically inert to most organic and corrosive agents, and is not wet by molten glasses or slags.

Boron Nitrate

Boron Nitrate

Electrical insulators

Boron Nitrate is a excellent electrical insulator. It offers very high thermal conductivity and good thermal shock resistance. Boron nitride, (chemical formula BN), synthetically produced crystalline compound of boron and nitrogen, an industrial ceramic material of limited but important application, principally in electrical insulators and cutting tools. The combination of high dielectric breakdown strength and volume resistivity lead to h-BN being used as an electrical insulator its tendency to oxidize at high temperatures often restrict its use to vacuum and inert atmosphere operation.

Boron Nitrate

Boron Nitrate

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Gold Metal Nanoparticles

Gold Metal Nanoparticles

Gold Metal Nanoparticles: Nanotechnology offers unique approaches to probe and control a variety of biological and medical processes that occur at nanometer scales, and is expected to have a revolutionary impact on biology and medicine. Gold Nanoparticles have, definition ane or more dimension in the nanometer scale <100 nm range and subsequently properties from their bulk materials. The approaches for exploiting nanotechnology in medicine, nanoparticles off er some unique advantages as sensing, image enhancement, and delivery agents.

Gold Metal Nanoparticles

Gold Metal Nanoparticles

Gold Metal Nanoparticles: Introduction

Gold Nanoparticles is one of the first metals to have been discovered the history of its study and applications spans at least some thousand years. One particularly exciting field of research involves the use of Gold Nanoparticles in the detection and treatment of cancer cells. Current methods of cancer diagnosis and treatment are costly and can be very harmful to the body. Gold Nanoparticles however, offer an inexpensive route to targeting only cancerous cells, leaving healthy cells untouched. Gold is a D block and period 6 elements. It is a soft metal that often alloyed to give it more strength. Ti is a good conductor of heat and electricity. The morphology of Gold Nanoparticles is spherical and they appear as a brown powder.

Drug Delivery

Introduction of new agents to cancer therapy has greatly improved patient survival but still there are several biological barriers that antagonize drug delivery to target cells and tissues, namely unfavourable blood half-life and physiologic behaviour with high off-target effects and effective clearance from the human organism . Gold Nanoparticles are suitable for the delivery of the drugs to cellular destinations due to their ease of synthesis, functionalization and biocompatibility. Gold Nanoparticles functionalized with targeted specific biomolecules can effectively destroy cancer cells or bacteria. Gold Nanoparticles covalently attached to low molecular weight chitosan have been used to design high efficiency vectors for vaccine delivery.

Cancer Diagnostic and Therapeutic Agents

Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. The use of nanoparticles for cancer therapy has been gaining popularity in recent years. Gold Nanoparticles (2 nm) conjugated with cyclodextrin and admantane has shown photothermal effects against cancer cells. The Gold Nanoparticles have also been used in combination with magnetic nanoparticles to target specific cell types for efficient imaging of cancer cells.

Recently, inorganic nanoparticles such as gold nanoparticles (Gold Nanoparticles) have been explored and exploited as a promising candidate for various biotechnology applications because of their unique characterizations. Gold Nanoparticles have been used as nano bio materials for molecular imaging and drug delivery in recent years. Gold nanoparticle conjugates express unique properties such as increased binding affinity and selective targeting to specific tissue or cells when delivered systemically.


Sensing of DNA and Oligonucleotides:

The sensitivity and selectivity response to the biological environment, the optical properties of Gold Nanoparticles have been used in sensing biological molecules and cells. Various Au NP formulations have been fabricated for targeting biological targets, such as DNA, RNA, cells, metal ions, small organic compounds, protein, and many more of biological specimens. using functionalized Gold Nanoparticles for biosensing, namely, sensing of DNA and oligonucleotides, SPR biosensor with functionalized Au NPs, cell detection and labeling with functionalized Au NPs, protein detection, detecting heavy metal ions, sensing of glucose, and sensing of other biological-related molecules with functionalized gold nanoparticles, respectively.


Cytotoxicity of Gold Nanoparticles is inacceptable level as Gold Nanoparticles are considered to be gold nanoparticles have the ability of bio-imaging of the effected cancerous cells for therapy. For effective drug delivery system or drug therapy it is important to investigate about the biological effects of the nanoparticles as gold nanoparticles have unique physical and chemical properties and have strong binding attraction for thiols, proteins , carboxylic acid aptamers and disulfides so they have been extensively used in the field of biosciences especially in drug delivery for cancer therapy. Gold nanoparticles followed three main pathways for the cellular uptake which includes receptor mediated endocytosis, phagocytosis and fluidphase endocytosis non-toxic agent.

Gold Metal Nanoparticles

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Gold Dispersions

Gold Dispersions

Gold Dispersions (GNPs) offer a great possibility for biomedical application, not only to pharmaceutics approaches, but also as novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. One of the important concerns is about their safety in clinical applications. Gold Metal Dispersion size has been shown to be an extremely important parameter affecting the nanoparticle uptake and cellular internalization.

Gold Dispersions

Gold Dispersions

Gold Dispersions are presently used in a wide range of applications such as catalysis, optical labeling, ferrofluids, and sensing. The chemistry and physics of metallic nanoparticles have been a topic of enduring interest since Faraday’s seminal insights into the optical properties of colloidal gold. These applications, along with the recent attention to nanoscale science and technology, fuel the demand for methodologies which enable nanoparticles to be incorporated into nano structured devices and composite materials. Dispersing metal particles in nonpolar organic solvents is appealing because the low interfacial energie should allow for a high degree of control during solution and surface processing. Gold Metal Dispersion based catalysts and impregnation to incipient wetness imbibitions, deposition-precipitation and deposition/immobilization of colloidal gold on are the most commonly used. Gold catalytic performance depends strongly on a combination of parameters: morphology, dispersion, metal particle size, temperature Ph and interactions between gold particles material.

Gold nanoparticles for plasmonic applications

Gold Dispersions Nanosized particles Dispersion of noble metals are a very active field of research because of their potential applications in photovoltaics, spintronics and plasmonics. Plasmonic photovoltaics utilizes plasmonic effects inherent to metallic nanostructures to improve the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices and to decrease their cost. In particular, gold, silver and copper nanoparticles (NPs) strongly absorb light in the visible region as a result of the surface plasmon resonance. The resonance wavelength depends on the nanoparticle size and shape as well as the dielectric constant of the surrounding medium. Especially in the colloidal chemistry, gold is known as one of the unique metals to form stable nanoparticles.

The Gold Metal Dispersion in supported heterogeneous catalysts are very valuable due to the strong nanoparticle size dependence on their activity and selectivity towards many reactions. Additionally, the ability to disperse large, inactive gold nanoparticles to smaller nanoparticles provides an opportunity to reactivate, stabilise and increase the lifetime of gold catalysts making them more practical for industrial applications.

Photodynamic therapy using gold particles

The photodynamic method is applied in the therapy of oncological diseases, certain dermal or infectious diseases, and is based on the use of light-sensitive agents – photosensitizers (including dyes) and, typically, visible light of a certain wavelength. The sensitizers is introduced into the organism intravenously; it may also be administered applicatively or perorally. The agents for photodynamic therapy (PDT) can selectively accumulate in the tumor or other target tissues (cells). Deliver drugs in polyelectrolyte capsules on Gold Metal Dispersion that disintegrate under laser radiation and deliver the therapeutic agent to the targets or to use nanoparticles surrounded by a layer of polymer nanogel. use composite nanoparticles that, gold nanoshells, comprise magnetic particles, photodynamic dye, PEG, and antibodies.

Gold nanoparticals dispersion in medical

Gold Metal Dispersion have recently been actively used in different spheres of nanomedicine for diagnostic and therapeutic . Moreover, they are being introduced parenterally into the organism of animals and humans with increasing frequency. The acute concerning their biodistribution, blood stream circulation, pharmacokinetics and removal from the organism, as well as possible toxicity at the level of the entire organism or at the level of cyto- and genotoxicity, emerged almost at the same time when GNP started to be used in medicine.


Using Gold Metal Dispersion in the antiviral vaccine as the carriers of protein antigen of the capsid of the tick-borne encephalitis virus. The vaccine contained no adjuvants, the experimental vaccine had better protective properties as compared with its commercial analogues. Use of Gold Metal Dispersion in designing DNA vaccines with gene constructions encoding proteins, to which antibodies had to be produced. In the case of efficient gene expression, these proteins serve as antigens for the development of the immune response. Colloidal gold particles are the most popular examples of nanoparticles–DNA carriers. Gold nanoparticles used as antigen carriers were shown to stimulate the phagocytic activity of macrophages and affect the functioning of lymphocytes, which probably is responsible for their immune-modulating effect.

Gold Biosensors

Gold Metal Dispersion are incorporated into biosensors to enhance its stability, sensitivity, and selectivity. Nanoparticle properties such as small size, high surface-to-volume ratio, and high surface energy allow immobilization of large range of biomolecules. Gold nanoparticle, in particular, could also act as “electron wire” to transport electrons and its amplification effect on electromagnetic light allows it to function as signal amplifiers. Main types of gold nanoparticle based biosensors are optical and electrochemical biosensor. Electrochemical sensor covert biological information into electrical signals that could be detected. The conductivity and biocompatibility of Au NP allow it to act as “electron wire”. It transfers electron between the electrode and the active site of the enzyme. It could be accomplished in two ways: attach the Au NP to either the enzyme or the electrode.

Gold Metal Dispersion

Gold Metal Dispersion

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