Monthly Archives: September 2016

Application Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Application Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

The special nature of carbon combines with the molecular perfection of single-wall CNTs to endow them with exceptional material properties, such as very high electrical and thermal conductivity, strength, stiffness, and toughness. No other element in the periodic table bonds to itself in an extended network with the strength of the carbon-carbon bond. The delocalized pi-electron donated by each atom is free to move about the entire structure, rather than remain with its donor atom, giving rise to the first known molecule with metallic-type electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the high-frequency carbon-carbon bond vibrations provide an intrinsic thermal conductivity higher than even diamond.

Application Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Application Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

In most materials, however, the actual observed material properties – strength, electrical conductivity, etc. – are degraded very substantially by the occurrence of defects in their structure. For example, high-strength steel typically fails at only about 1% of its theoretical breaking strength. CNTs, however, achieve values very close to their theoretical limits because of their molecular perfection of structure. This aspect is part of the unique story of CNTs.

CNTs are an example of true nanotechnology: they are only about a nanometer in diameter, but are molecules that can be manipulated chemically and physically in very useful ways. They open an incredible range of applications in materials science, electronics, chemical processing, energy management, and many other fields.

The properties of nanotubes are certainly amazing; in the last few years, many studies have suggested potential applications of CNTs and have shown innumerable applications that could be promising when these newly determined materials are combined with typical products. Production of nanorods using CNTs as reacting templates.

Applications for nanotubes encompass many fields and disciplines such as medicine, nanotechnology, manufacturing, construction, electronics, and so on. The following application can be noted: high-strength composites, actuators, energy storage and energy conversion devices, nanoprobes and sensors, hydrogen storage media, electronic devices, and catalysis.

Biomedical applications: Application Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

The applications of CNTs in the biomedical industry exclusively. Before use of carbon nanotube in biological and biomedical environments, there are three barriers which must be overcome: functionalization, pharmacology, and toxicity of CNTs. One of the main disadvantages of carbon nanotubes is the lack of solubility in aqueous media, and to overcome this problem, scientists have been modifying the surface of CNTs, i.e., functionalization with different hydrophilic molecules and chemistries that improve the water solubility and biocompatibility of CNT.

Application Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Application Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

 Another barrier with carbon nanotube is the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of nanoparticles which are affected by many physicochemical characteristics such as shape, size, chemical composition, aggregation, solubility surface, and fictionalization. Studies have shown that water-soluble CNTs are biocompatible with the body fluids and do not any toxic side effects or mortality.

CNTs Field Emission Applications

CNTs are the best known field emitters of any material. This is understandable, given their high electrical conductivity, and the incredible sharpness of their tip (because the smaller the tip’s radius of curvature, the more concentrated will be an electric field, leading to increased field emission; this is the same reason lightning rods are sharp). The sharpness of the tip also means that they emit at especially low voltage, an important fact for building low-power electrical devices that utilize this feature. CNTs can carry an astonishingly high current density, possibly as high as 1013 A/cm2. Furthermore, the current is extremely stable.  An immediate application of this behavior receiving considerable interest is in field-emission flat-panel displays. Instead of a single electron gun, as in a traditional cathode ray tube display, in CNT-based displays there is a separate electron gun (or even many of them) for each individual pixel in the display. Their high current density, low turn-on and operating voltages, and steady, long-lived behavior make CNTs very attractive field emitters in this application. Other applications utilizing the field-emission characteristics of CNTs include general types of low-voltage cold-cathode lighting sources, lightning arrestors, and electron microscope sources.

CNTs Energy Storage

CNTs have the intrinsic characteristics desired in material used as electrodes in batteries and capacitors, two technologies of rapidly increasing importance. CNTs have a tremendously high surface area (~1000 m2/g), good electrical conductivity, and very importantly, their linear geometry makes their surface highly accessible to the electrolyte.

Research has shown that CNTs have the highest reversible capacity of any carbon material for use in lithium-ion batteries. In addition, CNTs are outstanding materials for super capacitor electrodes) and are now being marketed for this application.

Application Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Application Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Application Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes in a variety of fuel cell components. They have a number of properties, including high surface area and thermal conductivity, which make them useful as electrode catalyst supports in PEM fuel cells. They may also be used in gas diffusion layers, as well as current collectors, because of their high electrical conductivity. CNTs’ high strength and toughness-to-weight characteristics may also prove valuable as part of composite components in fuel cells that are deployed in transport applications, where durability is extremely important.

 CNTs Conductive Adhesives and Connectors

The same properties that make CNTs attractive as conductive fillers for use in electromagnetic shielding, ESD materials, etc., make them attractive for electronics packaging and interconnection applications, such as adhesives, potting compounds, and coaxial cables and other types of connectors.

CNTs Ceramic Applications

The new ceramic material is far tougher than conventional ceramics, conducts electricity and can both conduct heat and act as a thermal barrier, depending on the orientation of the nanotubes.

Ceramic materials are very hard and resistant to heat and chemical attack, making them useful for applications such as coating turbine blades, but they are also very brittle.   The researchers mixed powdered alumina (aluminum oxide) with 5 to 10 percent carbon nanotubes and a further 5 percent finely milled niobium. These materials treated the mixture with an electrical pulse in a process called spark-plasma sintering. This process consolidates ceramic powders more quickly and at lower temperatures than conventional processes.

The new material has up to five times the fracture toughness — resistance to cracking under stress — of conventional alumina. The material shows electrical conductivity seven times that of previous ceramics made with nanotubes. It also has interesting thermal properties, conducting heat in one direction, along the alignment of the nanotubes, but reflecting heat at right angles to the nanotubes, making it an attractive material for thermal barrier coatings.

SWCNTs in Tyre industry

Carbon nanotube based polymer composites are many times stronger and yet lighter in weight than steel and replacing the metals in the aircraft’s structures and thus reducing the fuel consumption. Carbon nanotube based coatings and paints are finding use in radar absorbing materials as well as to help airplanes avoid accidents due to the lightning strike. Carbon nanotubes are one billionth of meter in diameter. Our hair is 70,000 times thicker than a carbon nanotube which is an amazingly powerful material having excellent electrical, mechanical and thermal properties.

Application Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes based polymer composites are finding applications to make various components of an automobile car including but not limited to: headlight mirror coatings, side trims, door inners, body panels, engine cover, inverter cover, timing belt cover and tyres. Carbon nanotubes based composites are finding use in high performance tyres with less weight and better fuel efficiency, better durability and having higher grip to the road than traditional carbon black based tyres.

Other Application Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

There is a wealth of other potential applications for CNTs, such as solar collection; nanoporous filters; catalyst supports; and coatings of all sorts. There are almost certainly many unanticipated applications for this remarkable material that will come to light in the years ahead, and which may prove to be the most important and valuable ones of all.   Many researchers are looking into conductive and or water proof paper made with CNTs.  CNTs have also been shown to absorb Infrared light and may have applications in the I/R Optics Industry.

Application Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes


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Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs (SWNTs, SWCNTs)

Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs (SWNTs, SWCNTs)

Carbon is the chemical element with atomic number 6 and has six electrons which occupy 1 s2, 2 s2, and 2p2 atomic orbital. It can hybridize in sp, sp2, or sp3 forms. Discoveries of very constant nanometer size sp2 carbon bonded materials such as graphene, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes have encouraged to make inquiries in this field. Most of the physical properties of carbon nanotubes derive from graphene. In graphene, carbon atoms are densely organized in a regular sp2-bonded atomic-scale honeycomb (hexagonal) pattern, and this pattern is a basic structure for other sp2 carbon bonded materials (allotropes) such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. Nanotubes have a rich and interesting history that spans virtually all scientific disciplines.

Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs

Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs

Most Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs (SWCNTs) have a diameter of close to 1 nanometer, with a tube length that can be many millions of times longer. The structure of single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) can be conceptualized by wrapping a one-atom-thick layer of graphite called graphene into a seamless cylinder. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), a member of the carbon family, are the one-dimensional analogues of zero-dimensional fullerene molecules with unique structural and electronic properties.

Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs

Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs

Due to their unique physical, chemical, and physiological properties Carbon nanotube is theoretically distinct as a cylinder fabricated of rolled up graphene sheet. It can divide into a single well or multiple wells. Nanotubes with single well are described as single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with diameters as small as about 0.4 nm while the ones with more than one well are multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) (2–30 concentric tubes positioned within one another) with outer diameters ranging from 5 to 100 nm. The specific structure of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be uniquely described by an (n, m) vector that defines its diameter and chirality.

Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs  are an important variety of carbon nanotubes because they exhibit electric properties that are not shared by the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) variants. In particular, their band gap can vary from zero to about 2 eV and their electrical conductivity can show metallic or semiconducting behavior, whereas MWCNTs are zero-gap metals. Single-walled nanotubes are the most likely candidate for miniaturizing electronics beyond the micro electromechanical scale currently used in electronics. The most basic building block of these systems is the electric wire, and SWCNTs can be excellent conductors.

Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs have unique near-infrared intrinsic fluorescence, inherent Raman spectroscopy and photo acoustic signal associated with the graphene in SWCNTs which makes them ideal for noninvasive and high sensitivity detection. SWCNTs have been broadly investigated as imaging agents for the evaluation of tumor targeting and localization of SWNTs in vitro and in vivo.

Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs

Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs

Unique Properties of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes:

The atomic arrangements of carbon atoms are responsible for the unique electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of SWCNTs. These properties are discussed below:

Mechanical Properties: Individual SWNTs are significantly stronger than steel. Calculated values for tensile strengths of SWCNTs are ~ 100 times greater than steel at 1/16th the weight. The highest measured value is approximately half of the predicted theoretical strength and second is the possibly due to defects in the structure.

Electrical Conductivity: A metallic CNT can be considered as highly conductive material. Chirality, the degree of twist of graphene sheet, determines the conductivity of CNT interconnects. Depending on the chiral indices, SWCNTs exhibit either metallic or semiconducting properties. The electrical conductivity of MWNTs is quite complex as their inter-wall interactions non-uniformly distribute the current over individual tubes. However, a uniform distribution of current (I) is observed across different parts of metallic SWNTs. Electrodes are placed to measure the conductivity and resistivity of different parts of SWNTs rope. The measured resistivity of the SWNTs ropes is in the order of 10-4 Ω cm at 27 ºC, indicating SWNTs ropes to be the most conductive carbon fibers. It has been reported that an individual SWNTs may contain defects that allows the SWNTs to behave as a transistor.

Optical Properties: Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs have a distinct optical absorption and fluorescence response, with each chirality demonstrating its own characteristic absorption and fluorescence spectrum. In general, coating formed with SWCNTS are highly transparent in the visible and IR regions of the spectrum, making SWCNTS an ideal candidate to replace ITO (indium tin oxide) as the transparent conductor of choice for applications such as displays, solar cells and electroluminescent lighting etc.

Strength and Elasticity: Each carbon atom in a single sheet of graphite is connected via strong chemical bond to three neighboring atoms. Thus, SWCNTs can exhibit the strongest basal plane elastic modulus and hence are expected to be an ultimate high strength fiber. The elastic modulus of SWNTs is much higher than steel that makes them highly resistant. Although pressing on the tip of nanotube will cause it to bend, the nanotube returns to its original state as soon as the force is removed. This property makes SWCNTs extremely useful as probe tips for high resolution scanning probe microscopy. The Young’s modulus of SWNT is about 1-1.8 TPa. For different experimental measurement techniques, the values of Young’s modulus vary in the range of 1.22 TPa–1.26 TPa depending on the size and chirality of the SWNTs. It has been observed that the elastic modulus of MWNTs is not strongly dependent on the diameter. Primarily, the moduli of MWNTs are correlated to the amount of disorder in the nanotube walls.

Thermal Properties: Room temperature thermal conductivity of a single nanotube may be comparable to that of diamond or in-plane graphite, which is generally thought to display the highest measured thermal conductivity of any known material at moderate temperatures.

Purity: The various manufacturing processes used in the production of SWCNTs lead to products which are contaminated to varying degrees with residual catalyst and other forms of carbon. For many applications, secondary processes are necessary to remove these contaminants to provide product of sufficient purity. More recently, methods of synthesis that minimize the ‘as manufactured’ impurities have become commercially available.

Selectivity: The Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs are a mixture of tubes of different chiralities, some of which are electrically conducting and some are semiconducting. It is desirable, for many applications, to isolate the types of tubes from one another, such as metallic from semiconducting, and for some applications, tubes with well-defined individual chiralities.

Dispersibility: Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs can be difficult to disperse, partly because of their well-known tendency to form ropes or bundles due to natural Van der Waals attraction between the tubes. However, they can be dispersed in aqueous solutions with the aid of suitable surfactants either as small bundles or as individual tubes. Exfoliation of bundles can be achieved by sonication of aqueous solutions of SWCNTs in the presence of surface active molecules such as DNA, sodium deoxycholate. Additionally, dispersions of SWNTs in resins and thermoplastics are limited by a dramatic build up in viscosity caused by the entanglement of the SWCNTs bundles.

Thermal Conductivity and Expansion: Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs can exhibit superconductivity below 20 K (approximately −253 ºC) due to the strong in-plane C–C bonds of graphene. The strong C-C bond provides the exceptional strength and stiffness against axial strains. Moreover, the larger interplane and zero in-plane thermal expansion of SWNTs results in high flexibility against non-axial strains. Due to their high thermal conductivity and large in-plane expansion, SWCNTs exhibit exciting prospects in nanoscale molecular electronics, sensing and actuating devices, reinforcing additive fibers in functional composite materials, etc. Recent experimental measurements suggest that the CNT embedded matrices are stronger in comparison to bare polymer matrices. Therefore, it is expected that the nanotube may also significantly improve the thermo-mechanical and the thermal properties of the composite materials.

Field Emission: Under the application of strong electric field, tunneling of electrons from metal tip to vacuum results in field emission phenomenon. Field emission results from the high aspect ratio and small diameter of SWCNTs. The field emitters are suitable for the application in flat-panel displays. For MWNTs, the field emission properties occur due to the emission of electrons and light. Without applied potential, the luminescence and light emission occurs through the electron field emission and visible part of the spectrum, respectively.

Aspect Ratio: One of the exciting properties of SWCNTs is the high aspect ratio, inferring that a lower CNT load is required compared to other conductive additives to achieve similar electrical conductivity. The high aspect ratio of SWCNTs possesses unique electrical conductivity in comparison to the conventional additive materials such as chopped carbon fiber, carbon black, or stainless steel fiber.

Absorbent: Carbon nanotubes and CNT composites have been emerging as perspective absorbing materials due to their light weight, larger flexibility, high mechanical strength and superior electrical properties. Therefore, SWCNTs emerge out as ideal candidate for use in gas, air and water filtration. The absorption frequency range of SWNT-polyurethane composites broaden from 6.4–8.2 (1.8 GHz) to 7.5–10.1 (2.6 GHz) and to 12.0–15.1 GHz (3.1 GHz). A lot of research has already been carried out for replacing the activated charcoal with SWCNTs for certain ultrahigh purity applications.

Single walled Carbon Nanotubes SWNTs


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Magnetic Nanoparticles Application

Magnetic Nanoparticles Application

Magnetic Nanoparticles Application: MNPs are of great interest for a wide range of disciplines, such as magnetic fluids, catalysis, biomedicine, magnetic energy storage, information storage and spintronics. They are used to enhance the capacity of magnetic storage devices such as magnetic tapes, and computer hard discs. Magnetic nanoparticles can also be used as giant magneto-resistance (GMR) sensors. In the medical field MNPs are used as Contrast Agents (CA) to enhance the contrast in MRI ; in tumor therapy where they can be selectively introduced into the tumor cells and then their temperature is increased using an oscillating magnetic field to reach near 43 °C (this temperature is known to make the tumor cells more sensitive to radiation and other treatment modalities) ; and finally used as site-specific drug delivery agents which involves immobilizing the drug on magnetic materials under the action of external magnetic field.

Magnetic Nanoparticles Application

Magnetic Nanoparticles Application

Magnetic Nanoparticles Application: Magnetic nanoparticles can also be used in water treatment. There is still a huge potential for magnetic nanoparticles to be implemented in a wider range of applications, which requires advances in the synthesis methods in order to produce nanoparticles with specific sizes, very narrow size distribution and well controlled magnetic properties. The application of magnetic nanoparticles also highly depends on the stability of the particles. For example, the magnetic moments of nanoparticles become unstable with temperature when the size of the nanoparticles becomes very small. Hence, stabilization of the magnetic moments is necessary to enhance the storage capacity of magnetic storage devices.

Magnetic Nanoparticles Application: Industrial applications

Magnetic iron oxides are commonly used as synthetic pigments in ceramics, paints, and porcelain. Magnetic encapsulates may find very important uses in many areas of life and also in various branches of industry. Such materials are interesting from both points of the fundamental study of materials science as well as their applications. Hematite and magnetite have been applied as catalysts for a number of important reactions, such as the preparation of NH3, the desulfurization of natural gas, and the high-temperature water-gas shift reaction. Other reactions include the Fishere-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons, the dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene to styrene, the oxidation of alcohols, and the large-scale synthesis of butadiene.

Magnetic Nanoparticles Application

Magnetic Nanoparticles Application

Biomedical applications:

Biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles can be classified according to their application inside or outside the body (in vivo, in vitro). For in vitro applications, the main use is in diagnostic separation, selection, and magnetorelaxometry, while for in vivo applications, it could be further separated in therapeutic (hyperthermia and drug-targeting) and diagnostic applications Nuclear Magnetic Resonance [NMR] imaging.

In vivo applications

Two major factors play an important role for the in vivo uses of these particles: size and surface functionality. Even without targeting surface ligands, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, diameters greatly affect in vivo biodistribution. Particles with diameters of 10 to 40 nm including ultra-small SPIOs are important for prolonged blood circulation; they can cross capillary walls and are often phagocytosed by macrophages which traffic to the lymph nodes and bone marrow.

1. Therapeutic applications: Hyperthermia: Placing superparamagnetic nanoparticles Altering Current [AC] magnetic fields randomly flips the magnetization direction between the parallel and anti parallel orientations, allowing the transfer of magnetic energy to the particles in the form of heat, a property that can be used in vivo to increase the temperature of tumor tissues to destroy the pathological cells by hyperthermia. Tumor cells are more sensitive to a temperature increase than healthy ones .In past studies, magnetite cationic liposomal nanoparticles and dextran-coated magnetite have been shown to effectively increase the temperature of tumor cells for hyperthermia treatment in cell irradiation. This has been proposed to be one of the key approaches to successful cancer therapy in the future .The advantage of magnetic hyperthermia is that it allows the heating to be restricted to the tumor area. Moreover, the use of subdomain magnetic particles (nanometer-sized) is preferred instead multidomain (micron-sized) particles because nanoparticles absorb much more power at tolerable AC magnetic fields which is strongly dependent on the particle size and shape, and thus, having well-defined synthetic routes able to produce uniform particles is essential for a rigorous control in temperature.

2. Drug delivery. Drug targeting has emerged as one of the modern technologies for drug delivery. The possibilities for the application of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles in drug targeting have drastically increased in recent years. MNPs in combination with an external magnetic field and/or magnetizable implants allow the delivery of particles to the desired target area, fix them at the local site while the medication is released, and act locally (magnetic drug targeting) Transportation of drugs to a specific site can eliminate side effects and also reduce the dosage required. The surfaces of these particles are generally modified with organic polymers and inorganic metals or oxides to make them biocompatible and suitable for further functionalization by the attachment of various bioactive molecules. The process of drug localization using magnetic delivery systems is based on the competition between the forces exerted on the particles by the blood compartment and the magnetic forces generated from the magnet.

Magnetic Nanoparticles Application

Magnetic Nanoparticles Application

 

Environmental applications

A similarly important property of nanoscale iron particles is their huge flexibility for in situ applications. Modified iron nanoparticles, such as catalyzed and supported nanoparticles, have been synthesized to further enhance their speed and efficiency of remediation. In spite of some still unresolved uncertainties associated with the application of iron nanoparticles, this material is being accepted as a versatile tool for the remediation of different types of contaminants in groundwater, soil, and air on both the experimental and field scales. In recent years, other MNPs have been investigated for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants.

Organic pollutants

There are a few articles about the removal of high concentrations of organic compounds which are mostly related to the removal of dyes. The MNPs have a high capacity in the removal of high concentrations of organic compounds. Dyes are present in the wastewater streams of many industrial sectors such as in dyeing, textile factories, tanneries, and in the paint industry. Therefore, the replacement of MNPs with an expensive or low efficient adsorbent for treatment of textile effluent can be a good platform which needs more detailed investigations.

Inorganic pollutants

A very important aspect in metal toxin removal is the preparation of functionalized sorbents for affinity or selective removal of hazardous metal ions from complicated matrices. MNPs are used as sorbents for the removal of metal ions. Thus, MNPs show a high capacity and efficiency in the removal of different metal ions due to their high surface area with respect to micron-sized sorbents. These findings can be used to design an appropriate adsorption treatment plan for the removal and recovery of metal ions from wastewater.

Magnetic Nanoparticles Application

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Magnetic Nanoparticles

Magnetic Nanoparticles

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties due to their finite size effects, such as the high aspect ratio and different crystal structures, than those found in their corresponding bulk materials.

Magnetic materials are those materials that show a response to an applied magnetic field. They are classified into five main types; ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, diamagnetic, anti-ferromagnetic, and ferrimagnetic.

Magnetic Nanoparticles

Magnetic Nanoparticles

 

Magnetic nanoparticles clusters that are composed of a number of individual magnetic nanoparticles are known as magnetic nanobeads with a diameter of 50–200 nanometers. Magnetic nanoparticles clusters are a basis for their further magnetic assembly into magnetic nanochains. The magnetic nanoparticles have been the focus of much research recently because they possess attractive properties which could see potential use in catalysis including   nanomaterials-based catalysts, biomedicine and tissue specific targeting, magnetically tunable colloidal photonic crystals, micro fluidics, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic particle imaging, data storage, environmental remediation, nanofluids, optical filters, defect sensor  and cation sensors.

These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical) with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10–100 μm), viruses, genes, down to proteins (3–50 nm). The optimization of the nanoparticles size, size distribution, agglomeration, coating, and shapes along with their unique magnetic properties prompted the application of magnetic nanoparticles in diverse fields.

Magnetic Nanoparticles

Magnetic Nanoparticles

 

Magnetic Nanoparticles are highly stable, shape-controlled and narrow sized. These nanoparticles can be synthesized by several popular methods, including co-precipitation, micro emulsion, thermal decomposition, solvothermal, sonochemical, microwave assisted, chemical vapor deposition, combustion synthesis, carbon arc, laser pyrolysis etc.

Properties of Magnetic Nanoparticles

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are those nanoparticles (NPs) that show some response to an applied magnetic field. Nanotechnology allows physicists, chemists, material scientists and engineers to synthesize systems with nano sizes where the classic laws of physics are different at that small scale.

As the size of the particle decreases, the ratio of the surface area to the volume of the particle increases. For nanoparticles, this ratio becomes significantly large causing a large portion of the atoms to reside on the surface compared to those in the core of the particle. The large surface-to-volume ratio of the nanoparticles is the key factor for the novel physical, chemical, and mechanical properties compared to those of the corresponding bulk material. The physical properties include the optical, electric and magnetic properties.

Magnetic effects are caused by movements of particles that have both mass and electric charges. These particles are electrons, holes, protons, and positive and negative ions. A spinning electric-charged particle creates a magnetic dipole, so-called Magneton.

Magnetic properties such as the Curie (TC) or Néel (TN) temperatures, saturation magnetization, remnant magnetization, blocking temperature and the coercivity field (HC) are found to be different than those for the bulk material.

The two main features that dominate the magnetic properties of nanoparticles and give them various special properties are: (a) Finite-size effects (single-domain or multi-domain structures and quantum confinement of the electrons); (b) Surface effects, which results from the symmetry breaking of the crystal structure at the surface of the particle, oxidation, dangling bonds, existence of surfactants, surface strain, or even different chemical and physical structures of internal -core and surface- shell parts of the nanoparticles.

Several magnetic effects could also result from the finite size effect of nanoparticles. These could include: (a) The existence of randomly oriented uncompensated surface spins. (b) The existence of canted spins. (c) The existence of a spin-glass-like behavior of the surface spins. (d) The existence of a magnetically dead layer at the surface. (e) The enhancement of the magnetic anisotropy which results from surface anisotropy.

Magnetic Nanoparticles

Magnetic Nanoparticles

 

When the size of single-domain particles further decreases below a critical diameter, the coercivity becomes zero, and such particles become super paramagnetic. Superparamagnetism is caused by thermal effects. In superparamagnetism particles, thermal fluctuations are strong enough to spontaneously demagnetize a previously saturated assembly; therefore, these particles have zero coercivity and have no hysteresis. Nanoparticles become magnetized in the presence of an external magnet, but revert to a nonmagnetic state when the external magnet is removed.

Several properties of magnetic nanoparticles must be attained:

(a) The Magnetic Nanoparticles Should Be Biocompatible and Non-Toxic.

(b) The magnetic nanoparticles are preferred to be sufficiently small (10–50 nm). This will have several advantages: (i) The nanoparticles will preserve their colloidal stability and resist aggregation if their magnetic interaction is reduced. This can be achieved if their magnetism disappears after removal of applied magnetic field. This superparamagnetism behavior is only achievable under certain particle size and above the blocking temperature. (ii) The dipole-dipole interactions scale as r 6 (r is the radius of the particle). Hence, the dipolar interactions become very small when the particle size becomes very small. This will serve to minimize particle aggregation when the field is applied. (iii) Decreasing size means larger surface area for certain volume (or mass) of the particle. The efficiency of coating (and also the attachment of ligands) will improve leading to even more resistance to agglomeration, avoidance of biological clearance and better targeting. (iv) Being very small, the particles can remain in the circulation after injection and pass through the capillary systems of organs and tissues avoiding vessel embolism. (v) The magnetic particles will be stable in water at pH = 7 and in a physiological environment. (vi) Precipitation due to gravitation forces can be avoided with small particles.

(c) The magnetic particles must have a high saturation magnetization. This is an important requirement for two reasons: (i) The movement of the particles in the blood can be controlled with a moderate external magnetic field. (ii) The particles can be moved close to the targeted pathologic tissue.

Nickel Oxide Nanomaterials

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POLYHEDRAL OLIGOMERIC SILSESQUIOXANE POSS

POLYHEDRAL OLIGOMERIC SILSESQUIOXANE POSS

Polymers are widely used in industry due to their light weight and ductility. However, they have a lower modulus and strength when compared to metals and ceramics, which may make polymers less attractive as engineering materials.

Polymer nano composites, a new class of hybrid materials composed of polymers into which nano-sized inorganic particles are dispersed, can produce desirable structural and functional properties without compromising other valuable properties. Nanoparticles impart functional properties, and polymers provide structure and process ability. Nanometer-sized filler materials have a large surface-area-to-volume ratio and are of particular interest, because they can be easily dispersed in a polymer, hence facilitating the enhancement of a desired property, such as modulus, strength, heat resistance, porosity (barrier property) and flammability.

POLYHEDRAL OLIGOMERIC SILSESQUIOXANE POSS

POLYHEDRAL OLIGOMERIC SILSESQUIOXANE POSS

Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSS)-containing polymer composites depend on the successful incorporation of POSS particles in polymeric matrices. Two approaches have been adopted to incorporate POSS particles into polymer matrices: (i) chemical cross-linking and (ii) physical blending. In the first approach, POSS nanoparticles are bonded covalently with polymer whereas in the second approach, POSS nanoparticles are physically blended with polymer by melt mixing or solvent casting methods.

POSS are nanostructures with the empirical formula RSiO1.5, where R may be a hydrogen atom or an organic functional group, e.g., alkyl, alkylene, acrylate, hydroxyl or epoxide unit. POSS may be referred to as a silica nanoparticles consisting of a silica cage core, as well as other organic functional groups attached to the corners of the cage (Figure. A). POSS consists of both organic and inorganic matter with an inner core of inorganic silicon and oxygen and an outer layer of organic constituents, which could be either polar or non polar.

POSS can be divided into molecular silica, monofunctional POSS and multifunctional POSS. When all the organic groups are non-reactive, they are referred to as molecular silica. If one of the organic groups is reactive, these POSS are called monofunctional POSS or Mono-POSS. If more than one of the organic groups is reactive, they are known as multifunctional POSS. The POSS molecules whose organic groups are all reactive are frequently encountered in the multifunctional POSS category. POSS with different R-groups and their properties. Silsesquioxanes structures can be random, ladder, cage or partial cage.

capture-a

Properties of POSS

POSS nanostructures have diameters in the range 1–3 nm and, hence, may be considered as the smallest existing silica particles. POSS particles have been classified as zero-dimensional; however, the ability to create higher dimensionality (1, 2 or 3-D scaffolds) through aggregation or crystallization of the POSS particles within the polymer matrix has also been reported. This ability of POSS to serve as building blocks plays a key role in motivating the study of POSS in polymer matrices.

poss

POSS nanoparticles can be used to decrease viscosity in highly filled resins by forming strong bonds with the surface of the fillers and breaking up particle-particle interactions, resulting in enhanced mechanical properties and surface finish. Unlike most filler, POSS molecules contain organic constituents on their external surface, which can make them compatible with many polymers.

poss-new

There are several key challenges encountered in preparing POSS-containing polymer-nanocomposites, some of which include long range calibration time, the aggregation of nanoparticles, and expensive large-scale production. The control of the nanostructure and location of nanoparticles in polymer-nanocomposites remain open challenge. As a result, processing methods have been developed to incorporate nanoparticles into polymer matrices either by in situ polymerization or by physical blending (e.g., melt mixing)

Property Value or typical behavior
Density range 0.9-1.3 gcm-3 typical (up to 1.82 gcm-3)
Refractive index range 1.40-1.65
Molecular size 1-5 nm
Form Colorless, odorless crystalline solids, some waxes and liquids
Polarity Very low (fluoroalkyl), low (alkyl), phenyl and PEG (medium) to polyionic (high)
Chemical aqueous pH stability Molecular silica’s (closed cage) very stable, trisilanols good
Thermal stability 250-350°C typical (> 400°C for some types)
Safety All three POSS tested so far were shown to be safe
Purity Standard purity > 97%

POSS nanoparticles into a polymer increase the strength, modulus, rigidity and reduce the flammability, heat discharge and viscosity of the polymer, while retaining its light weight and ductile features. These enhanced properties allow for a wider range of applications of these nanocomposites, e.g., drug delivery, polymer electrolytes, thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers.

Other benefits to POSS include being non-volatile, odorless and overall environmentally friendly. In addition, the ease with which they can be synthesized makes them commercially available. Considering these potential commercial uses and their increased performance over their non-hybrid counterparts, POSS-containing polymer nanocomposites have been widely investigated.

Mechanical Properties

Incorporation of POSS in polymer matrices can enhance the mechanical properties by reinforcing polymers. The mechanical properties of POSS-containing polymer nanocomposites depend on the state of the POSS dispersion (which depends on the surface functional group of POSS), amount of POSS, crystallinity, morphology, etc. The influence of POSS surface functionality on mechanical properties (Young’s modulus, yield stress and elongation at break) has been studied by incorporating POSS with three different surface functional groups (me-POSS, ph-POSS and vi-POSS) into polypropylene (PP) via melt-blending.

Dielectric Properties

Incorporation of nano-size filler-like POSS into polymeric matrices can improve the dielectric properties of the materials. The improvement in dielectric properties of polymer nanocomposites can be attributed to various factors, such as large particle-polymer interfacial area, particle-polymer nanoscopic structure and change in the internal electric field (polarity) due to the presence of nanoparticles. The dielectric properties have been studied for POSS-containing polymeric nanocomposites using dielectric spectroscopy.

Modulus and Yield Strength

The rigid cage means that POSS has a higher modulus than normal organic molecules. So, when POSS is added to polymers, the modulus of the polymer is not lowered, whereas adding low molecular weight organic molecules usually results in lower modulus. That is, they act as plasticizers. Because POSS has little to no effect on modulus of polymers, unlike fillers, it is not added to improve modulus.

Applications of POSS

The academic interest in POSS is undeniable. Academic interest in Buckminsterfullerene, dendrimers and hyper branched polymers is also immense. On the plus side, POSS combines the rigid cage of C60 with the high functionality of hyper branched polymers and all at a lower cost than either one. This has helped POSS find some real and potential applications.

POSS for Chorizo Packaging

A much touted application for POSS is in food packaging. Cellulose had traditionally been used to make Chorizo packaging. The wish was to use nylon because it is cheaper, but the barrier properties of nylon were not suitable. By adding POSS it is claimed that the barrier properties are adjusted, thereby allowing a double shelf-life of product. The various Industries has been making this POSS modified packaging for several years.

poss-1

Colorless Polyimide

Polyimide is a transparent, high temperature polymer with a characteristic orange tint. A copolymer of fluoropolyimide and POSS gives a colorless material with increased resistance to etch from atomic oxygen in Low Earth Orbit (important for satellites) or from oxygen plasma. When exposed to strongly oxidizing conditions, the POSS vitrifies to make a protective glassy layer.

foil
Friction Reduction in Polymers

It has been reported that POSS reduces the coefficient of friction when added to thermoplastics including PP and nylon. When the POSS is added in concentrations above its solubility limit, usually around 5 weight %, it phase separates from the polymer in small domains and blooms to the surface. This effect has been studied in detail on the micro and macro-scale.

Dispersants

Dispersants are a class of surfactants. They operate by binding to the particle surface such that two adjacent particles cannot approach closely. This reduces the inter particle forces and aids dispersion. The mechanism by which dispersants operate in low polarity media is called steric stabilization. POSS dispersants have proven effective for formulations containing specialty fillers and pigments compounded into high temperature polymers.

 Catalysts

It is possible to bind metal atoms into the corner of a POSS trisilanol, thus solubilizing the metal and giving a route to new catalysts. A very wide range of metals have been successfully chelated by POSS. The POSS trisilanols are very acidic, with roughly the same electron withdrawing effect. The POSS silanols exhibit a delta shift of 7-8 in the proton NMR, which indicating very high acidity.

Nickel Oxide Nanomaterials

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Nickel Oxide Nanomaterials

Nickel Oxide Nanomaterials

NICKEL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

Nickel oxide is the chemical compound with the formula NiO. It is an important transition metal oxide with cubic lattice structure.  The mineralogical form of Nickel oxide is bunsenite which is very rare. Nickel oxide nanoparticles appear in green powder form and having average particle size less than 50 nm. Due to their special structures and properties, Nickel oxide Nanoparticles have been widely used in various fields, such as photoelectric, recording materials, catalysts, sensors, ceramic materials, etc. Defects present in the structure of nickel oxide nanoparticles leads to non-stoichiometric nickel oxide which  is a good P-type semiconductor. Other  application includes  potential gas sensor for H2, in Nanowires , nanofibres & specific alloysand catalyst application. These applications can be enhanced by decreasing the particle size (preferably to less than 20 nm) and are highly dependent on particle size; the precise control of the size and distribution in a nanometer region is required.

Recently, several methods have been developed to prepare ultrafine nickel oxide powder, including low-pressure spray pyrolysis, surfactant-mediated method, simple liquid phase process and other techniques. Mostly nickel oxide nanoparticles are prepared by the thermal decomposition of freshly prepared nickel hydroxide by sol gel route at 300°C (572°F).

Nickel Oxide Nanomaterials

Nickel Oxide XRD Analysis

Nickel Oxide Nanomaterials

Nickel Oxide nanoparticles-SEM

 

Nickel Oxide Nanomaterials can also be extensively used in dye sensitized photocathode. These nanoparticles exhibits anodic electrochromism, excellent durability, electrochemical stability, large spin optical density and various manufacturing possibilities. Also for low material cost as an ion storage material, Nickel oxide nanoparticles semiconductor becomes a motivating topic in the new area of research. Because of the volume effect, the quantum size effect, the surface effect and the macroscopic quantum tunnel effect, nanocrystalline nickel oxide nanoparticles is expected to possess many improved properties than those of micrometer-sized nickel oxide particles.

Nickel Oxide Nanomaterials

Nickel Oxide Nanomaterials with finite sizes usually exhibit a number of unique properties, which may strongly differ from those observed in bulk materials. Effects of size on crystal structure, vibration modes, and magnetic properties of Nickel oxide have attracted much attention due to its applications in catalysis, battery cathodes, anti ferromagnetic layers, p-type transparent conducting films, and electro chromic film.

Nickel Oxide Nanomaterials

Nickel Oxide Nanomaterials

 

Nickel Oxide Nanoparticle or Nanopowder are white spherical high surface area metal particles. Nanoscale Nickel Oxide Particles are typically 10-30 nanometers (nm) with specific surface area (SSA) in the 130-150 m2/g range. Nano Nickel Oxide Particles are also available in Ultra high purity , carbon coated , passivated and dispersed forms.

Properties
Chemical Symbol NiO
Molecular weight 74.71 g/mol
Melting point 1955 °C
Density 6.67 g/cm3
Electronic config. Nickel [Ar]3d8 4s2 Oxygen [He] 2s2 2p4

The properties of oxide nanoparticles have been widely studied to investigate the influence of size, crystal lattice defects and surface effects. Varying the particle size of NiO leads to novel and interesting magnetic properties that range from nanosized to bulk-like behaviour Moreover, there is growing interest for the use of Nickel oxide nanoparticles in various applications.

The dielectric constant of NiO nanoparticles are high at low frequencies that decrease rapidly with the applied frequency at all temperatures. The high value of the dielectric constant may be attributed due to the increased ion jump orientation effect and the increased space charge effect exhibited by nanoparticles.

Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles Application

The nickel oxide nanoparticles are mostly used in batteries like lithium ion batteries, nickel-iron battery, nickel-Zinc battery, nickel- cadmium battery etc. Lithium-ion battery (LIB) has emerged as the primary source of power for variety of portable electronic devices. Here the anode material should, therefore, possess low reduction potential and high specific capacity. Recently, interest has been directed toward conversion reaction where nanostructured metal oxides are incorporated with a carbon-based support matrix and employed as LIB anode. Like many other nanostructured metal oxides, nickel oxide (NiO) has gained significant interest as LIB anode material because of its low cost, ease of synthesis, and environment friendly nature. Nanoparticles of NiO have shown reversible capacities in the range of 600–800 mAh/g. In case of NiO nanotubes, capacity as low as 200 mAh/g was also observed.

Other nanostructured forms of NiO such as nanosheets, nanofilms, and nanomembranes have shown much higher capacity in the range of 800–1000 mAh/g with good cyclability. Various researchers have also investigated the potential of NiO Nano Films (NFs) as LIB anode, and the results have been very encouraging.

The key applications of nickel oxide nanoparticles are as follows:

  • In preparation of nickel cermets for the anode layer of solid oxide fuel cells
  • In lithium nickel oxide cathodes for lithium ion micro batteries
  • In electro chromic coatings, plastics and textiles
  • In Nanowires, nanofibres and specific alloy and catalyst applications
  • As a catalyst and as anti-ferromagnetic layers
  • In light weight structural components in aerospace
  • Adhesive and coloring agents for enamels
  • In active optical filters
  • In ceramic structures
  • In automotive rear-view mirrors with adjustable reflectance
  • In cathode materials for alkaline batteries
  • Electro chromic materials
  • Energy efficient smart windows
  • P-type transparent conductive films
  • Materials for gas or temperature sensors, such as CO sensor, H2 sensor, and formaldehyde sensors
  • As a counter electrodes
Nickel Oxide Nanomaterials

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Nickel Nanoparticles

NICKEL NANOPARTICLES

Nickel is a chemical element with symbol ‘Ni’ and having atomic number ‘28’. Pure native nickel is found in Earth’s crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks. Nickel nanoparticles are transition metal particles and come in the size range of  ̴10 – 40 nm. It is a black silvery lustrous metal powder which is hard and ductile in nature. Nickel nanoparticles can be alloyed by tungsten, molybdenum, chromium, iron and with other metals to form corrosion resistant alloys.

In the recent years, considerable attention has been devoted to the development of uniform nanometre-sized nickel nanoparticles because of their unique properties and potential applications in a variety of fields including electronics, magnetism, energy technology, or biomedicine. In comparison with the noble metals, nickel nanoparticles have been much less studied in catalysis, although they have found a particular application in the growth of carbon nanotubes as well as in a variety of organic reactions. The synthesis of nickel nanoparticles in the zero valence state is not trivial since they readily undergo oxidation, consequently affecting their catalytic performance.

A lot of different methods of synthesis of metal nanoparticles are known, namely, physical (sputtering or mechanical dispersion of bulk substances), chemical (reduction of metal ions in solutions under conditions favorable for the formation of small metal particles). Nickel nanoparticles are mostly synthesized by chemical reduction method. In general, the presence of an additive, as protective agent, is necessary and a common feature in all these methodologies in order to prevent particle agglomeration

Nickel Nanoparticles

Nickel Nanoparticles

 

Due to the enhanced optical properties of Nickel Nanoparticles, Quantum effect can be seen in these particles. They are electrically ­­conductive and hence can be used for several applications. Nickel nanoparticles are also available as ultra high purity, passivated and dispersed forms.

Nickel nanoparticles are used as heterogeneous catalyst because they are inexpensive, non-toxic, low corrosion, waste minimization, easy transport and disposal of the catalyst.  However, the better efficiency of heterogeneous catalysis in organic synthesis can be improved by employing nanosized catalysts because of their extremely small size and large surface to volume ratio.

Nickel Nanoparticles

Nickel Nanopowder

Organic synthesis and chemical manufacturing processes including the chemo selective oxidative coupling of thiols , synthesis of tetraketones and bis-coumarins , reduction of p-nitrophenol , polyhydroquinoline derivatives , and bis (indolyl) methane synthesis which supports for hydrogen adsorption.

Nickel Nanoparticles

Nickel Nanoparticles- SEM

Properties of nickel nanopowder

Nickel (Ni) Nanoparticles or nanopowder are black spherical high surface area particles. Nanoscale Nickel Particles are typically 10 – 40 nanometers (nm) with specific surface area (SSA) in the 30 – 50 m2/g range.

The ultrafine and nanometer nickel powders have attracted a great deal of attention over past decades due to their specific properties such as magnetism, thermal resistance, chemical activity, high surface volume area, better reactivity, enhanced hardness, semiconductor conduction, and high chemical activity having a wide range of applications including batteries, hard alloy, catalyst, electricity etc.

Properties
Chemical Symbol Ni
Molecular weight 58.69 g.mol -1
Melting point 1453 °C
Boiling point 2732 °C
Density 8.9 g/mL at 25 °C
Surface Area (m2/g) 10.5
Electronic config. [Ar] 3d8 4s2

Metal nanoparticles of nickel, iron and cobalt are relatively difficult to synthesis because they easily get oxidized. Among them, nickel is the most stable particle. Nickel nanoparticles have important applications in catalysis and magnetic materials.

Applications of Nickel Nanopowder

Magnetic fluid: The magnetic fluid made of nickel nanoparticles provides excellent properties. It is widely used for sealants, shock absorption materials, medical equipment, and optical displays.

Efficient catalyst: Due to its large surface and high activity, nickel nanoparticles are efficient catalysts for chemical reactions such as hydrogenation and waste management of harmful chemicals

Propellant additive:Nickel nanoparticles are used as solid (rocket fuel) propellant which increases combustion heat, combustion efficiency and combustion stability.

Conductive paste: The Conductive paste of nickel nanoparticles is commonly used for wiring and packaging. In the microelectronics industry, it plays an important role in the miniaturization of electronic devices and circuits.

High-performance electrodes: Nickel nanoparticles can be made into electrodes with a large surface area to considerably improve energy density.

Sintering additive: As an additive, Nickel nanoparticles can effectively reduce sintering temperatures of metals and ceramics.

Conductive coating: A coating of Nickel nanoparticles can be prepared in an inert environment and below the melting point of the bulk metal.

Nickel Nanopowder / Nanoparticles Storage Conditions:

Damp reunion will affect its dispersion performance and using effects, therefore, Nickel Nanopowder should be stored at cool and dry place.It should be avoided to the the direct contact of air. In addition, Nickel Nanoparticles should be avoided under stress.

Nickel Nanoparticles Cautions: 

  1. Nickel nanoparticles is flammable. It should be gently placed and avoided violent vibration as well as friction.
  2. Nickel Nanoparticles should be prevented from moisture, heat, impact and sunlight.
  3. The user must be a professional (This person must know how to use Nickel Ni Nanoparticles).
Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Application

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ULTRA HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE

ULTRA HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE

Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWP) is an extremely high viscosity polymer that is produced in the form of a powder. Structurally, UHMWP is a similar to HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) differing primarily in average length of its molecular chains. This class of linear polyethylene is appropriately termed “ultra high” because its average molecular weight is 10-100 times greater than standard grades of HDPE. Commercially UHMWP is available with molecular weight of 3-6 million g/mole

UHMWP is a subset of the thermoplastics polyethylene and also known as HMPE i.e. High modulus polyethylene. It has an extremely long chain which serves to transfer loads more effectively to the polymer backbone by strengthening intermolecular interactions, which results in a very tough material; with the highest impact strength of any thermoplastic is made.

As the UHMWP is the modified form of HDPE which include exceptional characteristics like light weight, self lubricating, highest abrasion resistance, outstanding impact strength, complex parts etc. It has good chemical resistance and sound dampening properties.

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

Properties of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

Physical Properties
Molecular wt.(million) 2-6
Melting Point (°C) 125-135
Density (g/cc) 0.93-0.94
Tensile yield (Mpa) 19.3-23
Enlongation (%) 250-450
Tensile modulus (Mpa) 600-1500
Impact resistance <1070 no break
Hardness 60-65
Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

 

UHMWPE is odorless, tasteless, and nontoxic polymer. It is highly resistant to corrosive chemicals except oxidizing acids; has extremely low moisture absorption. UHMWP has outstanding abrasion resistance, chemical resistance and good frictional properties. Due to these properties UHMWP is employed for bulk material handling, food and beverage machinery; in mining and mineral processing equipment, recreational equipment, transportation and orthopedic implants.

UHMWP has better abrasion resistance and lower coefficient of friction as compared to PTFE. Beside this it has extremely low coefficient of friction with respect to nylon and acetyl.

UHMWP has high Impact strength and also having excellent chemical resistance. This material does not break in impact strength tests using standard notched specimens. UHMWP has a crystalline melting point of 267°F (131°C). Recommended maximum service is about 200°F (93°C).  Due to its high viscosity, it is commonly used to form plastics or polymer sheets which are manufactured by using compression molding and ram extrusion processes (high pressure machines).

Applications of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

Industrial
UHMWP is being used for hundreds of applications in mining, construction, chemical plants, waste water treatment plants etc. These industrial plants have the need for impact toughness, corrosion resistance, and biological inertness. UHMWP is used as scrapers, bushings, gears, conveyor rollers and more.

Agricultural

UHMWP will make agriculture machinery last longer, run more efficiently, and will reduce operating and maintenance costs.

Recreational 
UHMWP is used for a variety of parts for recreation vehicles such as snowmobile skis, bogey wheels, drive sprockets, idler arms and rollers.

Food and Drug

Tobacco, cosmetic and pharmaceutical packaging machines use UHMWP, after which the machines becomes free from contamination, rust or corrosion. Also the machine will not require any of the lubricants for its operation. UHMWP slide easily without staining or sticking. As per the clearance of FDA and USDA, the UHMWP are safe and can be used for sanitary.

Marine

Because UHMWP is non-marking, non-abrasive and virtually an unbreakable material. Due to these outstanding properties dock and boatlift manufactures use UHMWP for bumpers manufacturing, fenders manufacturing, rub rails manufacturing etc.

Transportation

Truck suspension manufacturers use UHMW-PE parts for wear plates, shims, bearings, etc. Railroad cars use UHMWP for wear plates, shims and coupler carriers.

Medical

UHMWP’s unique self-lubricating properties make it ideal for many medical applications and is   the only plastic approved for medical implants. UHMWP is available for molding various orthopedic joints such as hips, knees, and shoulders.

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Molybdenum Oxide Nano Particles

MOLYBDENUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

Molybdenum oxides nano particles are one of the most attractive metal oxides due to their special structural characteristics. They comprise of two simple binary oxides, namely, MoO3 and MoO2. MoO3 has several polymorphs, such as the thermodynamically stable α-MoO3 (space group Pnma), metastable β-MoO3 (P21/c), ε-MoO3 (P21/m), and hexagonal metastable h-MoO3 (P63/m) where as MoO2, with its distorted rutile structure, is an unusual but interesting transition metal oxide because of its low metallic electrical resistivity (8.8 × 10-5 Ω•cm at 300 K in bulk samples), high melting point, and high chemical stability.

MoO2 is another important molybdenum oxide. The electronic configuration of Mo3+ is 4d2, and MoO2 possesses a monoclinic structure. MoO2 is used extensively, in Li-ion batteries, field emission devices, catalysts, sensors, photo chromic devices, and electro chromic devices, etc. In the last two decades, intense interest has been focused on the photo chromic materials. The photo chromic materials have potential practical applications in areas such as displays, imaging devices, “Smart windows” and solar energy conversion.

Molybdenum Oxide Nano Particles

Molybdenum Oxide Nano Particles

 

Properties of molybdenum oxide nano particles

Properties
Chemical Symbol MoO2
Molecular weight 127.94 g/mol
Melting point 795 ° C
Boiling point 1155° C
Structure Orthorhombic crystal
Density 6.47 g/cm³
Electronic config. Molybdenum [Kr] 4d5 5s1
Oxygen [He] 2s2 2p4
Molybdenum Oxide Nanoparticles

Molybdenum Oxide Nanoparticles

The unique properties of molybdenum oxide nanoparticles like, Specific gravity is in the range of 4.5-4.7, it melts at 795°C into a brown liquid also slightly soluble in water, alkali and acid. It has high purity. When it reacts with phosphoric acid can generate phosphomolybdic acid.

Applications of molybdenum oxide nano particles

The key applications of molybdenum oxide nanoparticles are as follows:

  • In electrochemical capacitors
  • In coatings, nanowires, nanofibers, plastics, and textiles
  • In specific alloy and catalyst applications
  • As catalysts, oxidation catalysts, cracking catalysts, hydrogenation catalysts, and pigments
  • In ceramics and glass production
  • As a raw material for the production of molybdenum metal.
Molybdenum Oxide Nano Particles

Molybdenum Oxide Nano Particles

 

Molybdenum oxide nano particles have application in photo catalytic systems, as gas sensors for automobiles and as anodes in lithium ion batteries.

 

Molybdenum Oxide Nanoparticles

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Molybdenum Nanoparticles

Molybdenum Nanoparticles

Molybdenum nanoparticles are transition metal particles and come in the size range of 10 – 100 nm (approx.) Molybdenum is represented by the symbol ‘Mo’. Molybdenum is a valuable alloying agent, as it contributes to the harden ability and toughness of quenched and tempered steels. It also improves the strength of steel at high temperatures. Molybdenum is used in alloys, electrodes and catalysts. Molybdenum powders are used in circuit inks for circuit boards, and in microwaves devices and heat sinks for solid-state devices. Most molybdenum compounds have low solubility in water, but when molybdenum-bearing minerals contact oxygen and water, the resulting molybdate ion MoO2−4 is quite soluble. Industrially, molybdenum compounds are used in high-pressure and high-temperature applications as pigments and catalysts.

Molybdenum is toxic in excess quantities. It occurs in various oxidation states of minerals. It has low water solubility, and hence it can be used for high-temperature and high-pressure applications.

Molybdenum nanoparticles are flammable and hence it should be carefully stored. Anticorrosive capability of stainless steel in corrosive environments can be improved by adding 1 to 4% of molybdenum nanoparticles powder to stainless steel.

Molybdenum Nanoparticles

Molybdenum Nanoparticles

 

Properties of Molybdenum Nanoparticles

Properties
Chemical Symbol Mo
Molecular weight 95.94 g.mol -1
Melting point 2610 °C
Boiling point 4825 °C
Density 10.2 g.cm-3 at 20°C
Standard potential – 0.2 V
Electronic config. [ Kr ] 4d5 5s1

Molybdenum (Mo) Nanoparticles, nanodots or nanopowder are black high surface area particles. Nanoscale Molybdenum Particles are typically 50 – 100 nanometers (nm) with specific surface area (SSA) in the 1 – 5 m2/g range. Nano Molybdenum Particles are also available in Ultra high purity and high purity and coated and dispersed forms. They are also available as dispersion through the AE Nanofluid production group.

Nanofluids are generally defined as suspended nanoparticles in solution either using surfactant or surface charge technology. Nanofluid dispersion and coating selection technical guidance is also available. Surface functionalized nanoparticles allow for the particles to be preferentially adsorbed at the surface interface using chemically bound polymers.

Molybdenum Nanoparticles

Molybdenum Nanoparticles

Molybdenum Nanopowder / Nanoparticles Storage Conditions:

Mo Nanoparticles should be sealed in vacuum and stored in cool and dry room as Damp reunion will affect its dispersion performance and also, it should not be exposure to air. In addition, Molybdenum Nanoparticles should be avoided under stress.

Molybdenum Nanopowder / Nanoparticles Applications:

Molybdenum nanoparticles have applications in Metal machining additives, adding 1-4% Mo-nanopowder to stainless steel can make stainless steel improve anticorrosive capability in corrosive environments.

In Electron industry, mainly used in making high-power vacuum valve, heater tube, X-Ray tube, and many more.

Also used in Wood machining, Catalysts, Coatings, Cutting tools, hard alloys, High-temperature lubrication, Microelectronics films etc.

METAL ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS (MOF’s)

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