Monthly Archives: November 2016

Tungsten Oxide Nanoparticles


Nanoparticles research had progressed rapidly in the recent years mainly due to the unique properties of basic elements that are brought about by altering their atomic and molecular properties. By virtue of these properties, nanoparticles have found many applications in the field of biomedicine, cosmetics, electronics, coatings and plastics, etc. This article deals with the properties and applications of tungsten oxide nanoparticles.

Tungsten oxide is the chemical compound with the formula WO3. It is bronze-colored solid crystal in a monoclinic cell. The rutile-like structure features distorted octahedral WO6 centers with alternate short W–W bonds (248 pm). Each tungsten center has the d2 configuration which gives the material a high electrical conductivity.

Tungsten Oxide Nanoparticles

Tungsten Oxide Nanoparticles

Tungsten oxide occurs naturally in the form of hydrates which include minerals: tungstite WO3•H2O, meymacite WO3•2H2O and hydrotungstite (of the same composition as meymacite, however sometimes written as H2WO4). These minerals are rare to very rare secondary tungsten minerals.

In recent years, transition metal oxide structures have garnered considerable attention due to their unique properties. Among the numerous transition metal oxides, tungsten oxides have been of special interest because of their distinctive characteristics that have led to a number of applications and promise further developments. Such applications include gas and humidity sensors, optical devices, electrochromatic windows, catalysts and many more.

Numerous forms of tungsten oxide have been synthesized, with the stoichiometric formulas for all of forms being WOx, where 0 < x ≤ 3. Bulk tungsten oxides as well as tungsten oxide films are generally WO3, with WO2 forms also possible under some conditions. With the great interest in nanoscience and nanostructured materials over the past 15 years, researchers have developed nanostructured forms of tungsten oxide as well. These have ranged from WO3 nanocrystals on the order of only a few nanometers to one-dimensional nanorods of non-stoichiometric composition ranging from WO2.5 to WO2.9 (referred to as nanowires, nanoneedles, or nanowhiskers by some researchers).


Tungsten metal can be easily oxidized in air or oxygen to form oxides. When occurring at temperature up to 327◦C, this reaction forms WO3, with the thickness of the oxide layer dependent on both temperature and humidity. From 327◦C to 400◦C, a protective oxide layer of oxide is formed.

Tungsten oxide (WO3) nanopowder or nanoparticles are available in the form of nanofluids or faceted high surface area oxide particles exhibiting magnetism. Other forms in which these particles are available are dispersed, transparent, high purity and coated forms. Tungsten belongs to Block D, Period 6 while oxygen belongs to Block P, Period 2 of the periodic table.

Physical and Technical Properties

Chemical Symbol  WO3
Molar Mass 231.84 g/mol
Melting point 1473 °C
Boiling point 1700 °C
Density 7.16 kg/cm3
Electronic config. Tungsten [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
Oxygen [He] 2s2 2p4


Tungsten oxide is used for many purposes in everyday life. It is frequently used in industry to manufacture tungstates for x-ray screen phosphors, for fireproofing fabrics and in gas sensors. Due to its rich yellow color WO3 is also used as a pigment in ceramics and paints.

In recent years, tungsten trioxide has been employed in the production of electro chromic windows or smart windows. These windows are electrically switchable glass that change light transmission properties with an applied voltage. This allows the user to tint their windows, changing the amount of heat or light passing through.

Electro chromic Devices

WO3 -based electro chromic (EC) devices which are normally seen in smart windows and EC displays, have been widely studied over the past few decades. These devices exhibit a good memory effect with low power consumption, high contrast and long-term stability. There are a few types of configurations for EC devices.

Photo catalytic Applications

A main goal in the area of photo catalysis is to find suitable materials for efficient solar hydrogen production and organic pollutant degradation. In 1969, Fujishima and Honda reported the first photo electrolysis of water using single crystal rutile-structured TiO2 under UV irradiation. Since then, TiO2 and other semiconductor materials including WO3 were intensively explored for their photo catalytic abilities.

Optical Recording Devices

Driven by the need for high-density and reversible information storage, optical recording is an advanced technology, which has seen application in everyday life. The initial exploration of WOx for this field used a combination of photo chromic and electro chromic effects to record digital images.

Tungsten Oxide Nanoparticles

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Tungsten Nanoparticles Application

Tungsten Nanoparticles Application

Tungsten Nanoparticles Application: Nanoparticles are being explored in various biotechnological and pharmacological fields as they bridge between atomic or molecular structures and bulk materials.

Tungsten Nanoparticles Application: Metal nanoparticles are of general interest in view of fundamental aspects (e.g. quantum-confinement effects) and application (e.g., catalysis, thin-film electronics, high-power batteries, solar cells). Due to their high reactivity (including re-oxidation and hydrolysis), chemical synthesis becomes more challenging for the smaller particles.

Tungsten Nanoparticles Application

Tungsten Nanoparticles Application

For tungsten as a non-noble and it is highly oxophilic metal, so nanosized tungsten is highly relevant for catalysis, hard materials, thermionic cathodes or high-power batteries.

Tungsten has the highest melting point among the metallic elements. In its purest form, the hardness of tungsten exceeds that of many steels. It has resistance towards acids, alkalis and oxygen. Tungsten nanoparticles have high surface area which can lower the sintering temperatures, low vapor pressure, unusual quantum confinement and grain boundary effects.

Tungsten Nanoparticles Application

Tungsten Nanoparticles

Tungsten nanoparticles can be synthesized by the sono-electrochemical method where a platinum slice is used as anode, titanium-alloy horn connected to an ultrasound generator is used as cathode and a mixture of citric acid, ferrous sulfate, sodium tungstate and tri-sodium citrate acts as an electrolyte.

Generation of ultrasound develops electrochemical reaction and the cavitations effect, which in turn lead to formation of iron-tungsten nanoparticles at the cathode. The iron atoms are then dissolved in the acidic environment.


Tungsten (W) Nanoparticles, nanodots or nanopowder are black spherical with high surface area metal particles. Nanoscale Tungsten Particles are typically 40-80 nanometers (nm) with specific surface area (SSA) in the 1 – 5 m2/g range. Nano Tungsten Particles are also available passivated and in Ultra high purity, coated and dispersed forms.

Chemical Symbol W
Molar Mass 183.85 g/mol
Melting point 3410 °C
Boiling point  5530 °C
Density 19.3 kg/cm3
Electronic config. [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2

Tungsten is a grayish-white lustrous metal, which is a solid at room temperature. Tungsten has the low melting point and high melting point. It has excellent corrosion resistance and is attacked only slightly by most mineral acids.



Nanoparticles comprising tungsten containing multi-metal oxides can be used as pigments. Because they are smaller than the visible wavelengths of light, it leads to visible wavelengths interacting in unusual ways with nanoparticles compared to macro particles. Inorganic pigments ensure homogeneous lattice level mixing of elements in a complex multi-metal formulation. In this context tungsten nanocompounds are ideally suited for creating color and making superior pigments.


Substances containing nanoscale tungsten such as tungsten disulfide are useful lubricating additives, because they enable thinner films, offering reduced costs and distribute forces more uniformly with higher performance to improve the life of motor or engine. The nanoparticles can enter and buffer or reside in crevices, troughs thereby reducing the internal pressures, forces and inefficient thermal effects. These additives can be dispersed in lubricating formulations. Tungsten disulfide, molybdenum disulfide, molybdenum tungsten sulfide and such inorganic or organic nanoparticles composition can be added as lubricating additives in shaving blades and other surfaces requiring minimization of friction.

Analytical Agent

Sodium tungsten oxide nanoparticles, with high purity form are useful in biochemical analysis. Tungsten nanoparticles in metallic form are useful in the analysis of carbon and sulfur by combustion in an induction furnace. The high surface areas of nanoparticles comprising tungsten, with mean particle size less than 100 nanometers make them useful in these applications. Tungsten nanoparticles may also be used to form stronger polymer composites.

Electronic applications

Tungsten nanomaterials offer several unusual benefits as electron emitters as the small size of nanoparticles can enable the formation of very thin film devices, lower the sintering temperatures and sintering times, exhibit inherently low vapor pressure even at high temperatures and have unusual quantum confinement and grain boundary effects enabling the preparation of improved electron emitting devices. They also offer novel compositions for chemical, mechanical polishing applications and electrical contacts. Photocopiers, facsimile machines, laser printers and air cleaners can benefit from charger wires prepared from tungsten comprising nanomaterials. Nanodevice having electrodes, chemical sensors, biomedical sensors, phosphors and anti-static coatings can be prepared from nanoscale powders comprising tungsten.

Nanomaterials comprising tungsten are particularly useful as direct heated cathode or heater coils for indirectly heated cathodes in cathode ray tubes, displays, x-ray tubes, X-ray device anodes, klystrons, magnetrons for microwave ovens and electron tubes. Multimetal nanomaterials compositions comprising tungsten include those based on rare earths and thoria for high intensity discharge lamps and welding electrodes. The unusual combination of vapor pressure, electrical conductivity and electronic properties make nanomaterials compositions comprising tungsten useful as substrate for high power semiconductor rectifying devices, high voltage breakers, incandescent lamps such as household lamps, automotive lamps, and reflector lamps for floodlight or projector applications, audio-visual projectors, fiber-optical systems, video camera lights, airport runway markers, photo printers, medical and scientific instruments, and stage or studio systems. High temperature furnace parts such as heating coils, reflectors, thermocouples can also benefit from the quantum confined and low vapor pressure characteristics of tungsten nanomaterials.

Tungsten Nanoparticles Application

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Tungsten Disulfide Nanoparticles


Nanoparticles research has gained momentum in the recent years by virtue of the unexpected outcomes that are possible by altering the atomic and molecular properties of basic elements. This article elaborates on the properties and applications of tungsten sulfide nanoparticles. Tungsten disulfide nanoparticles (WS2) are partially soluble in water and acidic solutions. It occurs in nature in the form of a mineral called tungstenite. These nanoparticles are the principal component of catalysts that are used for hydro-denitrification. They are used widely as solid lubricants that are used at high temperature environments. Tungsten is a Block D, Period 6 element and sulphur is a Block P, Period 3 element.

Tungsten Disulfide Nanoparticles

Tungsten Disulfide Nanoparticles

WS2 nanoparticles have very good performance in new solid lubricant materials, not only for general lubrication; also it can be used in the work environment of high temperature, high pressure, high vacuum, high load with radiation and corrosive media.

WS2 cluster produce magnetic alignment, lubrication process can be better if adsorbed on the metal surface to form a layer of nano protective lubricating film. WS2 has a very small friction coefficient (about 0.03); therefore it can be used as additives in the metal powder to obtain a stable friction coefficient. Nanoscale WS2 has good resistance to oxidation, it can be used as additives to lubricating oil (grease) effectively to improve lubricant (grease) extreme pressure properties and antiwar properties. By adding nanoscale tungsten disulfide in the casting process it enhances the self-lubricating properties and gives an excellent adsorption capacity on the metal surface.

WS2 nanoparticles are a new highly efficient catalyst; which are mainly used for oil catalysts and also can be used as solid lubricants. WS2 nanoparticles are used in dry film lubricants and self-lubricating composite materials. WS2 nanoparticles is used to create high-performance lubricant additive which can be used as fuel cells of the anode, organic electrolyte battery anode, the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in strong acid in the anode and the anode sensor. WS2 nanoparticles are used to make nano-ceramic composites which are good semiconductor material.


Tungsten Disulfide (WS2) is one of the most lubricous materials known to science. With Coefficient of Friction at 0.03, it offers excellent dry lubricity unmatched to any other substance. It can also be used in high temperature and high pressure applications. It offers temperature resistance from -450o F (-270oC) to 1200oF (650oC) in normal atmosphere and from -305oF (188o C) to 2400oF (1316oC) in Vacuum. Load bearing property of coated film is extremely high at 300,000 psi.

Physical and Technical Properties

Chemical Symbol WS2
Molar Mass 247.98 g/mol
Melting point 1250 °C
Color  Silver grey
Density 7.5 kg/cm3
Magnetism Non- Magnetic
Chemical Durability Inert Substance Non toxic
Coat-able Substance Iron,Aluminum,Copper etc.
Electronic config. Tungsten [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
Sulphur [Ne] 3s2 3p4

The research proves that tungsten disulfide can sufficiently lubricate the metals that come in contact with each other within the engine. It also shows that the lubricant can be used as a better alternative for conventional lubricating oils.


Tungsten disulphide possess very good antifriction properties, since the coefficient of friction is 0.05 to 0.01 in vacuum and 0.1 to 0.2 in air at 1 kgcm -2 pressure and 0.025 in vacuum at a pressure of 1000kgcm -2. Due to their good adhesive characteristics and stability against moisture they are extensively employed as a solid lubricant. The lubricating properties of WS2 at high pressure (< 80 kbars) and temperature (<200°C) have also been investigated.

As a synthetic powder, Tungsten disulfide consists of various elements such as hexagonal crystal clusters and a lamellar lattice structure. These elements create a certain amount of friction, thus converting the powder into a very lubricious material. The same formula is being applied to engine oils.

As a tungsten disulfide lubricant helps to improve the tribological properties of engine oil, and increasing overall thermal conductivity. Thus, it minimizes friction within the engine, reduces internal wear and tear, and increases fuel efficiency.

Tungsten disulfide (WS2) is one of the most popular materials that are used as industrial lubricants. The product has been used in a variety of applications including aerospace, automotive, military and even medical. Marine and automotive industries have been two sectors that have really benefited from the use of the lubricant. Research is now being done on how tungsten disulfide can be used in other processes.

Tantalum Pentoxide

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Tungsten Carbide Application

Tungsten Carbide Application

Nanoparticles research has come up with innovative solutions that are useful in the field of cosmetics, bio medicine, and electronics; which were not possible with elements in their original states.

Tungsten Carbide Application: Tungsten carbide (WC) nanoparticles are available as nanodots, dispersed and passivated ultra pure forms. These nanoparticles are insoluble in cold water, exhibit a strong resistance to acids and have a high elastic modulus. These nanoparticles should be stored under cool, dry, vacuum conditions. Tungsten is a Block D, Period 6 element and carbon is a Block P, Period 2 element.

Tungsten Carbide Application

Tungsten Carbide Application

Tungsten carbide (WC) is a promising catalytic material for the gas diffusion electrode, since its catalytic behavior resembles platinum, but its stability, anti-toxic and oxidation resistance are much higher than other metals.

Tungsten Carbide Application

Tungsten Carbide Application

Researchers compared the stability of the most commonly used carbides in electrochemical applications: tungsten carbides (WC) in electrolytic solutions by varying pH values, where WC exhibits the largest region of stability at a relatively lower pH value. It has been reported that tungsten carbide exhibits high catalytic activity in electro-catalysis and is a promising material for hydrogen evolution reactions and hydrogen oxidation reactions in electro-catalysis.

Platinum (Pt) nanoparticles supported by WC substrate show remarkable catalytic activity for Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), has anti-poisoning properties for carbon monoxide in methanol electro-oxidation and exhibits improved methanol oxidation performance.

Additionally, tungsten carbide particles act as a counter-electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells, shown to improve catalytic activity for iodide reduction, and when combined with Titania in nanocomposites, have shown synergistic effects for electro catalysts.


Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms. Tungsten Carbide (WC) Nanoparticles, nanodots or nanopowder are black spherical high surface area particles. Nanoscale Tungsten Carbide Particles are typically 10 – 100 nanometers (nm) with specific surface area (SSA) in the 100 – 130 m2/g range.

In its most basic form, tungsten carbide is a fine gray powder, but it can be pressed and formed into shapes for use in industrial machinery, cutting tools, abrasives, armor-piercing rounds, other tools, instruments and jewelry.

Chemical Symbol WC
Molar Mass 195.86 g/mol
Melting point 2870 °C
Boiling point 6000 °C
Density 8.64 kg/cm3
Electronic config. Tungsten [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
Electronic config. Tungsten [Xe]4f14 5d4 6s2
Carbon [He] 2s2 2p2

There are two well characterized compounds of tungsten and carbon, WC and tungsten semi carbide, W2C. Both compounds may be present in coatings and the proportions can depend on the coating method. At high temperatures WC decomposes to tungsten and carbon and this can occur during high-temperature thermal spray, e.g., in high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) and high energy plasma (HEP) methods. Oxidation of WC starts at 500–600 °C (932–1,112 °F). It is resistant to acids and is only attacked by hydrofluoric acid/nitric acid (HF/HNO3) mixtures above room temperature.


There are lots of metal compounds that are heavily used for various applications across the planet, but there are none that possess the particular attributes of tungsten carbide. This marrying of the element carbon and tungsten creates an alloy that is resistant to heat, rust, scratches and pitting. Carbide also boasts an extremely high density with a hardness second only to diamond, excellent conductivity, all while boasting an overall strength that surpasses that of steel three times over. This compound is easily molded into many shapes, can be sharpened with precision, and can be melded with or grafted to other metals without issue. Tungsten carbide scrap is also one of the best candidates for recycling in its class, making the alloy extremely valuable for all sorts of applications, including those discussed below:

Industrial Alloys

Roughly 17% of tungsten carbide usage comes from the creation of specialized alloys and composite materials that contain other metals in them. Carbide can be combined with nickel, iron, silver, and copper to create materials that are utilized in commercial construction applications, electronics, industrial gear making, radiation shielding materials, and the aeronautical industry.

Mill Products

Just over 10% of tungsten carbide is used exclusively for the manufacture of mill products including various end mills and mill inserts. These products vary in size and shape depending on the material they will be coming in contact with, but all are used for applications in grinding and milling. Because carbide is so hard and can be easily molded, it is possible to create accessories for precise milling applications that will yield coarsely grinded material or the finest powder.


The above three applications make up more than 90% of carbide usage across the globe. However, one of the newest applications for tungsten carbide that is gaining popularity every day for making jewelry. Naturally, the hardness of carbide makes it an attractive alloy to use for crafting rings, pendants, earrings and other jewelry, but when cut and polished correctly, the material is actually stunningly beautiful as well. In fact, tungsten based wedding and engagement rings are becoming all the rage lately and since tungsten carbide is cheaper than gold, it is cost effective as well.

Surgical Tools

Tungsten Carbide Application: The use of carbide in the medical industry offers another important application for the material because the tools that are made from it are often being used to save lives. Surgical tools are one of the most notable uses for grafted carbide as the stem of the tool is typically made of stainless steel or titanium, while the blade, tip, or end is made from carbide. Not only can carbide blades be sharpened to have a much finer edge due to the material’s hardness, but its resistance to pitting and rusting helps to give tools tipped with it much greater longevity.
Other Uses

Tungsten Carbide Application: Carbide is used for many other applications including tipping trekking or ski poles as well as cleats, the manufacture of fishing weights, and many cutting and pulverizing mechanisms for recycling machines. Always remember that regardless of what you might use carbide for that you recycle the material appropriately after it has run its course. Less than 10% of the world’s tungsten is found in the United States and it is up to each and every one of us to do our part in order to ensure that we are relying on foreign material as little as possible. The financial incentives that come from recycling carbide for you as well as the implications for the industry domestically are worth the time and effort.

Tungsten Carbide Application

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Tantalum Pentoxide

Tantalum Pentoxide

Tantalum Nanoparticles research has gained momentum over the recent years mainly due to the unexpected behavior of the basic elements when their atomic and molecular properties are altered. This article will look into the properties and applications of tantalum pentoxide.

Tantalum pentoxide, also known as tantalum (V) oxide, is the inorganic compound with the formula Ta2O5. It is a white solid that is insoluble in all solvents but is attacked by strong bases and hydrofluoric acid. Ta2O5 is an inert material with a high refractive index and low absorption (i.e. colorless), which makes it useful for coatings. It is also extensively used in the production of capacitors, due to its high dielectric constant.

Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) nanoparticles are magnetic oxide nanoscale particles having a spherical form. These particles are available in coated, dispersed, nanofluid and ultra high purity forms. Tantalum belongs to Block D, Period 6 while oxygen belongs to Block P, Period 2 of the periodic table.

Tantalum Pentoxide

Tantalum Pentoxide

This transition metal oxide has replaced aluminum oxide in the capacitors, making them much smaller and lighter. To a lesser extent, this compound is also used in high refractive index glass and as a catalyst, but the main use of tantalum oxide and tantalum metal is as constituents in capacitors.

Ta2O5 emerged in the seventies, mainly due to its promising properties as an antireflective layer for optical or photovoltaic applications. During the following decade, a few studies explored different ways to obtain stable oxide layers and their potential applications. However, the real emergence of tantalum pentoxide as a dielectric material happened during the last decade primarily because of an exceptional effort in the development of electronics devices using tantalum oxide films as dielectric layers.

Properties of tantalum pentoxide

Tantalum is not found in its pure state. Rather, it is commonly found in a number of oxide minerals, often in combination with Columbium ore. This combination is known as “tantalite” when its contents are more than one-half tantalum.

Chemical Symbol Ta2O5
Molar Mass 441.83 g/mol
Melting point 1872 ° C
Solubility in water Negligible
Density 8.2 g/cm3
Electronic config. [Xe]4f 145d26s2
[He] 2s2p4

The properties of pure bulk tantalum pentoxide are of interest because of the increased use of tantalum metal and tantalum pentoxide in electronic applications. Preliminary x-ray diffraction studies of tantalum pentoxide have been performed and it has been found to occur in two forms: a high-temperature form, α- Ta2O5, whose transition temperature from the low-temperature form, β- Ta2O5 is about 1340 °C. The reverse transformation takes place slowly enough that if a sample of, β- Ta2O5 is held at a temperature above 1340 °C till the sample transforms entirely to α- Ta2O5 and then is quenched to below 500°C it will remain as α-Ta2O5 indefinitely. Because of this, attempts to grow crystals of Ta2O5 by the flame-fusion method have resulted in the production of boules of α-Ta2O5 and not, β-Ta2O5

Applications of Tantalum

Electronic applications, and particularly capacitors, consume the largest share of world tantalum production. Other important applications for tantalum include cutting tools (tantalum carbide), high temperature super alloys, chemical processing equipment, medical implants, and military ordnance.

Tantalum electrolytic capacitors are the preferred choice in applications where volumetric efficiency, stable electrical parameters, high reliability and long service life are the primary considerations. The stability and resistance to elevated temperatures of the tantalum/tantalum oxide system make wet tantalum capacitors an appropriate choice for today’s technology.

Nanoshel is a major user of tantalum materials in the form of powder and wire for capacitor elements and rod and sheet for high temperature vacuum processing. Tantalum pentoxide is widely used in capacitors; tantalum capacitors are basic to all kinds of electrical equipment from satellites, aerospace, airborne, military ground support, oil exploration and power supplies.

Owing to its high band gap and dielectric constant, tantalum pentoxide has found a variety of uses in electronics, particularly in tantalum capacitors. These are used in automotive electronics, cell phones, and pagers, electronic circuitry; thin-film components; and high-speed tools. In the 1990s, interest grew in the use of tantalum oxide as a high dielectric for DRAM capacitor applications.

It is used in on-chip metal-insulator-metal capacitors for high frequency CMOS integrated circuits. Tantalum oxide may have applications as the charge trapping layer for Non-volatile memories. There are applications of tantalum oxide in resistive switching memories.

Tantalum Pentoxide

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