Monthly Archives: August 2017

Nano Hydro Fabric Coating

Nano Hydro Fabric Coating

Nano Hydro Fabric Coating: Nano-textiles are an emerging and interesting application of nanotechnology. It involves dealing with nano fibers at the atomic and molecular levels in order to tweak their properties. This novel technology can give rise to incredible clothing such as water-resistant and dirt-free clothes, odor-less socks, and intelligent clothes that can perform climate control for you.

Nano Hydro Fabric Coating: The ever-increasing demand for sophisticated fabrics with special features and exceptional comfort drives the need for the use of nanotechnology in this industry. More and more companies are utilizing nanoadditives to enhance the surface characteristics of clothes such as water/stain-resistance, UV-protection, wrinkle resistance, color durability, flame retardancy, and better thermal performance.

nano hydro fabric coating

Although these Nanofabrics are antimicrobial, strong and intelligent, they also pose some risks to the user and the environment. In the following sections, we will discuss some of their innovative applications and also environmental risks.

The field of Nanofabric is incredibly large with many different flavors and forms. One type of Nanofabric is formed by applying commercially available nano-engineered finishing treatments to ordinary textiles and the variety is wide, from carpet and clothing to medical fabrics and mosquito netting.

The finishing treatments have elements sized in the 1-100 nanometer scale and are assembled in an orderly fashion, creating novel properties that differ from the bulk material, and are considered nanotechnology.

Repellency, stain-release, odor elimination, moisture elimination, anti-static, and wrinkle-free are some of the properties implemented using nanotechnology and engineering in these coating agents or finishing processes.

Although these properties are not new, Nanofabric finishes offer improvements over conventional finishes, which exhibit random orientation after they are applied. In conventional finishes, only a small percentage of coating materials touch the fibers, and most of it is bonded to itself, resulting in lost effectiveness as the coating wears away with time.

Nanofabric coatings create fabrics whose fibers have better durability and wear ability, and less coating material is needed compared to conventional finishes due to the ordered structure. Most importantly, the technology becomes part of the fabric itself, so the effect is more permanent.

Applied with Liquid Finishes

Liquid finishing chemistries are sold to textile manufacturers who apply them to fabrics in standard manufacturing lines. With some finishes, chemical or nano-engineered elements permanently attach to natural or synthetic fibers at the molecular level by a series of chemical reactions in which they arrange to an ordered state.

An ordinary fabric (or yarn, fiber, finished, or non-woven good or textile) is exposed to a liquid solution, put through rollers to squeeze out excess, and is dried and “cured” with heat. The heat of the curing processes activates chemical reactions that cause chemicals to orient and attach to fibers. The resulting fabric has different characteristics than before treatment.

Since the curing temperatures driving the reactions for attachment to a fiber are hotter than those found in a typical home tumble dryer or clothes iron, these finishing liquids will not be available for home or consumer application any time soon.

Outer Structures Strengthen Individual Fibers for Wrinkle-Free Finish

“Wrinkle-free” treatments aim to retain a fiber’s flexibility and shape. One approach to creating a treatment that maintains a fiber’s original orientation and smooth appearance is to provide a physical structure around a fiber that has lots of “give,” so when fibers are pulled, they react with high degrees of flexion instead of demonstrating a brittle response.

Chemical chains can be created with physical structures similar to loops so fibers can maintain flexibility under tension and can be pulled further without breaking. By using small chemical chains that are able to penetrate deeply into the fiber, more structure can be provided to each fiber, creating better performance.

Pushing the Limits

As we push the limits of our thinking on nano-fabrics and nano-coatings, it may begin to sound like something out of science fiction. But, putting this into perspective, the ideas I mention below are not as far out as some may think.

1. Nano-Netting – Using super strong fibers so small that they are invisible to the human eye, nano-netting will provide a fibrous support structure that is visually non-intrusive but capable of keeping out insects, birds, and other unwanted animals.  The density of the netting can be adjusted to match specific requirements.  Objects can be suspended in air with seemingly invisible support.  Invisible fences, invisible screens, and invisible cars and windmills will all be possible.

2. Liquid Shells – Ultra-fine shells will be created for liquid products sold in retail stores.  These shells will range from completely flexible to totally rigid, with some offering a shape changing option to better accommodate the particular space needs of an individual. Alternatively, water, soft drinks, energy drinks, wine, beer, and a variety of other drinkable liquids will begin to experiment with “one gulp” or “quarter gulp” micro containers.  Containers with sixteen one ounce, gulp packs will make it easy to pop a quick drink into someone’s mouth.

3. Indestructible Coatings – Bearings that never wear out, highways that never deteriorate, and buildings that last forever are the promise of indestructible coatings.  But indestructible materials will lead to indestructible trash some day.  So every durable coating will need an “off” switch.

4. Food Coatings – Based on an individual’s dietary requirements, food particles will be coated in a way to increase or decrease the body’s absorption rate.  Smart surface coatings will be able to anticipate the digestive system’s reaction to a certain food, and adjust the coating interface accordingly. Losing weight will be easy when we make it less digestible.

5. Organ-View Clothing – As part of our on-going effort to monitor our own biological functions, it may be possible to design a fabric that serves as an optical lens into our inner selves.  Think of this as a wearable CAT scan system with variable-adjust focal point settings, zoom powers down to a near-nano scale, and flexible data-capture sensors built-in. The fashion options here will be incredible.

6. Memory Inducer Coatings – A specialized coating placed on a product will activate a person’s senses in a way to link the product with positive memories.  Simply touching the surface will trigger a series of images and memories inside a person’s brain.  As an example, some people will smell fresh baked pie, others will hear a song that reminds them of their mother, and still others will feel like a warm blanket has been draped over their shoulders on a cool fall evening.  This kind of coating will take the experience marketing industry to a whole new level.

7. Self-Moving Fabrics – It will no longer be good enough for smart fabrics to merely collect and transmit information, the next generation will have the ability to take action.  Dirty clothes will pick up after themselves, snuggly fitting shirts and pants will readjust themselves for maximum comfort, and torn clothing will send them out for repair.  Beds will make themselves, sheets will change themselves according to a set rotation, and pillows will have the ability to sense pressure points and reform themselves accordingly.

8. Super Skin Coatings – If you can imagine a flexible skin coating that will allow us to swim to depths of 2,000 feet or more below the ocean surface, walk across the surface of the moon without a suit, enter into caustic chemical environments unphased, and survive a nuclear blast, then you have the idea of what super skin coating will be like.

Nano Hydro Fabric Coating

Contact Us for Nano Hydrofabric Coating
From us, you can easily purchase Nano Hydro Fabric Coating at great prices. Place online order and we will dispatch your order through DHL, FedEx, UPS. You can also request for a quote by mailing us at sales@nanoshel.com Contact: +1 302 268 6163 (US and Europe), Contact: +91-9779550077 (India). We invite you to contact us for further information about our company and our capabilities. At Nanoshel, we could be glad to be of service to you. We look forward to your suggestions and feedback.


Organically Modified Nanoclay

Organicallly Modified Nanoclay

Modified Nanoclay are ubiquitous nanofiller and belong to a wider group of clay minerals. They are not new to humankind and ceramists have been using them in the development of clay products since prehistoric times. For instance, several clay products had been prepared using Kaolin, with the traditional name China clay, and its use is dated to the 3rd century BC in China. Even though the structure of Nanoclays and their nature is being explored for decades and are being used since antiquity, their exact definition is an ongoing subject of debate.

Modified Nanoclay minerals are hydrous silicates and may simply be described as fine-grained particles with sheet like structure stacked over one another. Owing to this geometry, they are commonly known as phyllosilicates, sheet-structured silicates. Phyllosilicates are mainly composed of fine grained aluminosilicates and are formed as a result of chemical weathering of silicate minerals at the surface of the earth.

Modified Nanoclay are commonly dominated by phyllosilicates and may be separated from the clay fraction or the bulk clay material by different approaches. Methods used for extracting and processing of Nanoclays include energetic stirring followed by centrifugation and freeze-drying; centrifugation and cross-flow filtration and ultracentrifugation.

Nanoclays are easily available, environment friendly, low cost chemical substances and a large volume of literature has accumulated on various perspectives of Nanoclays research over the past few decades. Major research domains include (i) synthesis and characterization; (ii) surface properties and stability; (iii) fabrication of nanoclay-filled nanocomposites; and the use of nanoclays as precursors for the development of novel materials. Nanoclays have found applications in many fields, including medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, catalysis, food packaging and textile industry.

In addition to these mentioned application, Nanoclays are also helpful in environmental protection and remediation. Their potential as adsorbents for volatile organic compounds, and organic/inorganic contaminants in waste water is well documented. This multifariousness in applications can be attributed to (1) the amazing amenability of Nanoclays for change/modification, and (2) the dispersion/delamination of clay layers into individual lamellae. Amenability of nanoclays for modification lies in the fact that inter-lamellae cations can be replaced by desirable cations or other molecules. Simple procedures are required to modify the surface chemistry of Nanoclays. This surface modification provides tremendous scope for altering the properties of clays like their polarity, surface area, interlayer spacing, acidity, and pore size and many others that govern their performance in different applications. Nanoclays’ tendency to delaminate into individual nanosheets that result in high aspect ratio is their other exploited characteristic behind diverse applications.

Structural and Physical Properties of Modified Nanoclay

Nanoclays are fine-grained crystalline materials. A layer is the basic structural unit of Nanoclays and these layers are prone to arrange themselves over one another like pages of a book. Individual layers are composed of the tetrahedral and/or octahedral sheets and this arrangement of sheets plays a vital role in defining and distinguishing these clay minerals.

In tetrahedral sheet, the silicon-oxygen tetrahedra are linked to neighboring tetrahedra by sharing three corners while the fourth corner of each tetrahedron forms a part to adjacent octahedral sheet. The octahedral sheet is usually composed of aluminum or magnesium in six-fold coordination with oxygen from the tetrahedral sheet and with hydroxyl. The sheets form a layer, and several layers may be joined in a clay crystallite. Vander Waals force, electrostatic force, or hydrogen bonding between the layers is the main drivers to clutch these layers with one another and form stacks of parallel lamellae.

This stacking results irregular Van der Waal gaps between the adjacent layers. These spaces between the layers are called interlayer or gallery and can be accessed by water, organic cations or polar organic liquids. This intercalation weakens the forces clutching these layers with one another and causes the lattice to expand. The clay minerals’ ability to accept changes in surface chemistry and delaminate into individual lamellae is their pertinent characteristics that have been widely exploited in the development of novel composites.

Many well known natural and synthetic nanoclays viz. saponite, hectorite, montmorillonite, fluorohactite, and laponite belong to smectite family. It is worth noting that despite sheet arrangement similarity of the member clays of a particular clay group, the lateral dimensions of all the members are different. In addition, the layer dimensions vary not only for each member clay, but also for the same clay from different origins. Depending upon the number of factors, including source of clay, method of preparation and particulate clay, the thickness of each layer is about 1 nm with lateral dimensions ranging from 300 Ȧ to several microns.

Halloysite

Halloysites are types of naturally occurring multiwalled aluminosilicates with 1:1 sheet arrangement. The halloysite layer structure is composed of octahedrally coordinated Al3+ and tetrahedrally coordinated Si4+ in a 1:1 arrangement with water molecules between the layers. Halloysites were firstly discovered by Berthier as a clay mineral of the kaolin group in 1826, and were named “halloysite” after Omalius d’Halloy who analyzed the mineral first time. These nanoclays are found worldwide and their deposits have been reported in countries such as Australia, China, Belgium, Brazil, France, Spain, New Zealand, Mexico, America and others.

Halloysites’aluminosilicate sheets are rolled into tubes and nanosized tubular halloysite, also called halloysite nanotube (HNT) is morphologically similar to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Even though platy and spheroidal morphologies have also been reported in literature, the tubular structure is the dominant morphology of HNTs in nature and has attracted researchers from different scientific fields. HNTs are being used for long and the production of high-quality ceramics such as porcelain or crucible products have been among their traditional applications.

However, with the recent advent of nanotechnology, these natural occurring materials with nano-scale lumens are being studied for a large range of new applications such as nano-containers for drug delivery, nano-templates for the fabrication of nanowires and nanoparticles, catalyst carriers, sorbents for contaminants and pollutants and nanofiller for polymers’ reinforcement. Among these application of HNTs, their use as an encapsulation vessel for the storage and controlled release of active agents; and load bearing constituents in nanocomposites have been major focus of research in last two decades.

Montmorillonite

Smectite nanoclays are among heavily researched nanofillers in the field of nanocomposites. Among these smectite nanoclays, montmorillonite (MMT) has got prominence over other member nanoclays owing to its abundance, environmentally friendliness and well-studied chemistry. MMT is dioctahedral nanoclay with the 2:1 layer linkage. They are the most efficient reinforcement fillers and their reinforcing potential is well documented in literature. The studies revealed that larger surface area and large aspect ratio are the salient attributes responsible for the reinforcement. Besides reinforcing effect of MMT, it is also viewed as rigid, impermeable filler. It creates a maze structure when dispersed in polymers, forces the moving gases/vapors to follow a tortuous path, and finally lowers their permeation rate.

Organophilization of Modified Nanoclay

Clay minerals reinforced polymer nanocomposites (CPNs) have received substantial recognition in the field of composites owing to their potential to exhibit remarkable improvements in the mechanical, thermal and barrier properties even at small loadings when compared with their micro-scale counterparts. However, the enhanced performance properties could only be recognized at nanoscale dispersion. To achieve nanoscale dispersion, delamination and thereby exfoliation of these nanofiller platelets is prerequisite.

Nanoclays as Nano Fillers for Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites

Nanocomposites are a fairly new class of composite materials where filler having at least one dimension in the nanometer (10−9 m) range is dispersed in a continuous matrix. They got recognition after the first successful development of Nylon nanocomposites having enhanced mechanical properties by the Toyota researchers. Since then, nanocomposites have been major area of research.

The nanocomposites have shown improved mechanical and thermal properties; decreased flammability and barrier properties than both micro and macro composite materials. The filler loading; their shape, aspect ratio and their affinity towards matrix material are among distinctive parameters that play a vital role in modifying the properties. The nanocomposites could be prepared by different methods including in situ polymerization, melt intercalation and direct mixing. The dispersed filler can be of the shape of sphere, tube, fiber or lamellae. The correlation of properties of materials with filler size has gained a great deal of importance with the recent advancement in the field of nanotechnology.

Owing to their exceptional potential to exhibit peculiar characteristics that could not have been achieved with their traditional micro-scale counter parts, they have attracted a great deal of interest to exhibit enhanced and novel properties. There have been studies on the incorporation of nanoparticles having differences in shape, size, aspect ratio, structure and geometry; and several nanoparticles have been recognized as possible additives to enhance performance properties.

Nanoclays are rigid fillers and improvement in the moduli of matrix material with the incorporation of these nanoclays is generally attributed to their high stiffness. Polymeric matrices are soft materials and their reinforcement with rigid nanoclays impede the free movement of polymer chains neighboring to the filler and if the interfacial adhesion.

Applications of Modified Nanoclay

Without going into detail on how the clay nanocomposites impart enhanced property performance, this article will focus on where clay nanocomposites have been used to improve property performance, especially to yield improvement in more than one area, and also where the improvements have led to commercial use.

Modified Nanoclay

Modified Nanoclay

The most common use clay nanocomposite has been in mechanical reinforcement of thermoplastics, especially polyamide-6 and polypropylene. The aforementioned polyamide-6 clay nanocomposite produced by Ube/Toyota was used to replace a metal component near the engine block that yielded some weight savings. The clay in this application improved the heat distortion temperature of the material, allowing it to be used in this higher temperature application. GM/Blackhawk has also announced polypropylene-clay nanocomposites for automotive applications, and the clay brought an increase in flexural/tensile modulus while maintaining impact performance.

The use of clay nanocomposites for flame retardant applications is becoming more common, especially as it is realized that the clay nanocomposite can replace part of the flame retardant package while maintaining fire safety ratings at a lower flame retardant loading.

Another common application of clay nanocomposites is for gas-barrier materials. Clay nanoparticles create a complex network in the polymer matrix, such that various gases either diffuse very slowly or not at all through polymer chains and pinholes in thin films or thicker polymer parts. The success of clay nanocomposites to impart decreased diffusivity of oxygen and water has led to their use in food/liquid packaging to keep foods fresher longer.

Clay nanocomposites are already used in many applications to enhance existing properties of a particular material, and further R&D efforts should focus on development of true multi-functional materials. Certainly, clay nanocomposites will continue to be used for enhanced mechanical, flammability, and gas barrier properties, but fundamental limits in clay chemistry prevent them from being used easily in applications requiring electrical/thermal conductivity or optical applications.

The field of polymer-clay nanocomposites, and the broader field of polymer nanocomposites, continues to grow. As stated in the introduction, these materials have likely been in use for quite some time already, but as the chemist and materials scientist become better at designing the system through fundamentals, new products and applications utilizing this technology will grow in number and capability.

Modified Nanoclay

Contact Us for Nanoclay Montmorillonite
From us, you can easily purchase Modified Nanoclay Montmorillonite at great prices. Place online order and we will dispatch your order through DHL, FedEx, UPS. You can also request for a quote by mailing us at sales@nanoshel.com Contact: +1 302 268 6163 (US and Europe), Contact: +91-9779550077 (India). We invite you to contact us for further information about our company and our capabilities. At Nanoshel, we could be glad to be of service to you. We look forward to your suggestions and feedback.