Monthly Archives: September 2017

Quantum Dots

QUANTUM DOTS AND ITS APPLICATIONS

A quantum dot gets its name because it’s a tiny speck of matter so small that it’s effectively concentrated into a single point (in other words, it’s zero-dimensional). As a result, the particles inside it that carry electricity (electrons and holes, which are places that are missing electrons) are trapped (“constrained”) and have well-defined energy levels according to the laws of quantum theory (think rungs on a ladder), a bit like individual atoms. Tiny really does mean tiny: quantum dots are crystals a few nanometers wide, so they’re typically a few dozen atoms across and contain anything from perhaps a hundred to a few thousand atoms. They’re made from a semiconductor such as silicon (a material that’s neither really a conductor nor an insulator, but can be chemically treated so it behaves like either). And although they’re crystals, they behave more like individual atoms hence the nickname artificial atoms.

Quantum dots were discovered in the 80’s but commercialization has initially been slow. Interest in quantum dots peaked in the early 2000’s when nanotechnology was still a favorite keyword amongst investors. However, a lack of products meant that quantum dots were mostly used in research labs.

In the last three years, quantum dots have been back in the spotlight with the promise to make LCD screens more colorful and more energy efficient. Sony was the first to commercialize a quantum dot LCD TV in 2013 and there are now several OEMs (including Samsung) offering TVs with quantum dots.

As a type of semiconductor, quantum dot exhibit a photoluminescence which is particularly useful for improving colors in LCD. But quantum dots can also be used as electroluminescent materials: quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLED) have been in development for several years and they have a great potential for display applications. Quantum dots are also emerging as a promising material for other type of devices, most notably optical and infrared sensors.

These tiny nanoparticles have diameters which range from 2 nanometers to 10 nanometers, with their electronic characteristics depending on their size and shape. Nanoshel are able to accurately control the size of a quantum dot and as a result they are able ‘tune’ the wavelength of the emitted light to a specific colour.

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Quantum Dots

Quantum Dots

Quantum dot find applications in a number of areas such as solar cells, transistors, LEDs, medical imaging and quantum computing, thanks to their unique electronic properties. Nanoshel deals with the quantum dots such as

  • CdTe quantum dots, powder, hydrophilic – CdTe quantum dots exhibit the broadest wavelength emission spectra range between 510 nm and up to 780 nm. It is easy to form colloidal solutions of them in water and terminate them with -COOH group. It is possible to couple -NH2 groups with them through EDC-mediated esterification. They are suitable for biologic labeling purposes.
  • CdSe/ZnS (core/shell) quantum dot, powder, hydrophobic – CdSe/ZnS quantum dots are core-shell structured inorganic nanocrystals wherein an outer core of wider band gap ZnS encapsulates an inner core of CdSe. They are highly luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals coated with hydrophobic organic molecules. They are insoluble in ethers, alcohols and water, but soluble in pyridine, tetrahydrofuran, chloroform, toluene, heptanes, and hexane. The wavelength emission spectra range between 530 and 650 nm.
  • ZnCdSe/ZnS (core/shell) quantum dots, powder, hydrophobic – ZnCdSe/ZnS quantum dots have the smallest available average particle size. Thus, they can emit the bluest to white light, making them suitable for use in solid state luminescent devices. Wavelengths range from 440 to 480 nm. They are highly luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals coated with hydrophobic organic molecules. They are soluble in pyridine, tetrahydrofuran, chloroform, toluene, heptanes, and hexane, but insoluble in ethers, alcohols and water.

Applications of Quantum Dots

Light Emitting Diodes

Quantum dot light emitting diodes (QD-LED) and ‘QD-White LED’ are very useful when producing the displays for electronic devices due to the fact that they emit light in highly specific Gaussian distributions. QD-LED displays can render colors very accurately and use much less power than traditional displays

Photo detectors

Quantum dot photo detectors (QDPs) can be produced from traditional single-crystalline semiconductors or solution-processed. Solution-processed QDPs are ideal for the integration of several substrates and for use in integrated circuits. These colloidal QDPs find use in machine vision, surveillance, spectroscopy, and industrial inspection.

Photovoltaic’s

Quantum dot solar cells are much more efficient and cost-effective when compared to their silicon solar cells counterparts. Quantum dot solar cells can be produced using simple chemical reactions and can help to save manufacturing costs as a result.

Biological Applications

The latest generation of quantum dots has great potential for use in biological analysis applications. They are widely used to study intracellular processes, tumour targeting, in vivo observation of cell trafficking, diagnostics and cellular imaging at high resolutions.

Quantum dots have been proved to be far superior to conventional organic dyes as a result of their high quantum yield, photo stability and tunable emission spectrum. They are 100 times more stable and 20 times brighter than traditional fluorescent dyes.

The extraordinary photo stability exhibited by quantum dots make them ideal for use in ultra-sensitive cellular imaging. This allows several consecutive focal-plane images to be reassembled into three-dimensional images at very high resolution.

Quantum dot can target specific cells or proteins using peptides, antibodies or ligands and then observed in order to study the target protein or the behavior of the cells. Researchers have found out that quantum dots are far better at delivering the siRNA gene-silencing tool to target cells than currently used methods.

Pellet Chips Metal Balls
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Pellet Chips Metal Balls

PELLET CHIPS METAL BALLS


Pellet Chips Metal Balls: Pallets, in general, pellets have a shape known as diabolo which means that the front and rear sections are of larger diameter than the middle. One reason for this is to reduce the friction that would result if more of the pellet made contact with the barrel. Even though some air guns are rather powerful, the amount of work necessary to push the pellet down the barrel would be large if the pellet had a shape like a bullet.

Another feature of pellets is that they have hollow bases (the skirt area of the pellet) that are generally larger in diameter than the front section (known as the head of the pellet). This enables the skirt to effectively seal the bore against the pressure pushing on the base of the pellet while the friction on the head area is not too high.

The pellet velocity from any air rifle depends on the weight of the pellet. Heavier pellets simply cannot be driven as fast as lighter ones. However, heavier pellets normally retain their velocity better as a result of their having higher ballistic coefficients. Even though initial velocity is lower, a greater percentage of that velocity is retained down range. Although a great deal of emphasis is placed on high muzzle velocity, pests are normally shot at some distance from the muzzle so the ability of the pellet to retain velocity is also important.

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Pellet Chips Metal Balls

Pellet Chips Metal Balls

Pelletizing is the process of compressing or molding a material into the shape of a pellet. By extruding the material through a screen, the pellets are formed by shaving off the parts in predetermined lengths just before hardening. A wide range of different materials are pelletized including metals and chemicals. Ninety percent of pellets are usually made from rod varying in different diameters depending upon the requirement of the user. Uniformity in shape is an attribute of pellets.

Metal chips are generally irregular shaped portions of metal fragments where the key to selection is the “available surface area.” Chips come in a variety of sizes and shapes which can range from being quite large (an inch or two in diameter to fractions of inches). Generally, the smaller the chips, the more surface area there is of the material being used.

Chips are often made by “shaving” metals with burring type bits. The size of the chips depends upon different criteria such as, the size and roughness of the bit as well as the hardness of the material being shaved or chipped off. Selection and use of chips, like pieces, are often determined by the amount of surface area available on the material.

Metal balls are rolling, spherical elements that exhibit greater strength and toughness than plastic and ceramic balls. They have a sufficient hardness for many industrial ball applications, and most products are electrically conductive. Some steel, nickel, and cobalt balls can be magnetized. Metal balls made from certain alloys can also provide corrosion resistance and refractory resistance.

Nanoshel deals with Pellet Chips Metal Balls. The applications of metal balls are given below:

  • Balls made from electrically-conductive metals such as brass, copper, silver, and gold are used in electrical contacts, battery safety releases, switches and microelectronic interconnects. Dielectric balls are used in electrical and electronic applications.
  • Balls for valve applications include products for check valves and ball valves, as well as trunnion, segment, stem, three-way, four-way, poly or multiple way, and two-piece balls. Valve balls must have a controlled sphericity and sufficient tolerances for proper sealing against the valve seat. Typically, these metal balls have through-hole. They may also have a thread bore, slot, or stem. The through-hole provides a more uniform flow between the open and closed states.
  • Lower density or hollow balls are often used in float and level sensing applications.
  • S2 tool steel balls are often specified for petrochemical, oil and gas and mining applications when other types of metal balls can’t handle exposure to impact, erosive drilling and mining fluids, and abrasive minerals.
  • Metal balls with suitable corrosion and density (weight) are used as agitator balls agitation or mixing applications in aerosol cans or mixers.
  • Other applications for metal balls include proprietary, patented or specialty applications such as drilling equipment, hardness testers, swivel balls, pinball machine balls, weights, toys, bicycle parts, foosball balls, handles, knobs, skates, drawer slides, spacers, fillers, projectiles, marine parts, door locks, and coffee makers.

Pellet Chips Metal Balls
Contact Us:

Please feel free to send us your requirement about our products
sales@nanoshel.com
contact@nanoshel.com
+1 646 470 4911 (US)
+36 30 4750555 (EU)
+91-9779880077 (India)



Metal Foils

METAL FOILS

Metal Foils: A foil is a very thin sheet of metal, usually made by hammering or rolling. Foils are most easily made with malleable metals, such as aluminium, copper, tin, and gold. Foils usually bend under their own weight and can be torn easily. The more malleable a metal, the thinner foil can be made with it. Foil is commonly used in household applications. It is also useful in survival situations, because the reflective surface reduces the degree of hypothermia caused by thermal radiation.

Metal foils are thin gauged metal sheets used for a variety of applications from machining, to electrical applications and jewelry making. Metal foils are made from elements including copper, aluminum, brass, nickel and stainless steel.

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Metal Foils

Metal Foils

Aluminum Foil: Aluminum is the third most abundant element on earth. It is extracted from bauxite. Bauxite is refined to make a pure aluminum oxide call alumina. The alumina is charged with an electrical current. This process is known as electrolic reduction. The metal produced from this process is added to a wide variety of alloys allowing them to provide specific characteristics suited for a variety of applications.

Copper foil: Copper is a versatile metal used in a variety of industries. Major characteristics include being a malleable and ductile metal with a very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is an influential metal for both industrial and consumer applications. The copper foil rolls we offer are ideal for use in the following applications: cable wrap, batteries, solar/alternative energy, circuit boards, and transformers.

Brass Foil: Brass has exceptional corrosion resistance properties whilst also maintaining substantial electro and thermo conductive properties due to its copper base. It is for these reasons that the alloy gets widely used in electronic applications where durability is needed. Brass comes in a variety of attractive colors depending on the individual alloy and forms exceptionally well which is why the alloy is also used in many decorative applications. Brass foil can be used in Condenser Plates, Heat Exchangers and Condenser Tubing, Hot Forgings, Radiator Tanks and Cores, Hinges, Pins, Rivets, Buttons, Needles, Plumbing accessories, Flashlight shells, Connectors, Terminals, Relays, Fancy interior fittings, Taps, Locks, Deep drawing articles and many more.

Nickel Foil: Nickel foil provides an aggressive, high shear and outstanding high-temperature resistance at service temperatures in excess of 400°F. Adhesives include solvent- and emulsion-based acrylic, rubber and silicone. Popular applications for nickel foil include: Automotive, Fabrication, Construction, Electronics, Cryogenics, and Die Cut Parts.

Tungsten foil: Tungsten foil is an extremely thin form of tungsten sheet, which is a flattened form of tungsten metal. Tungsten foils are produced for applications such as aerospace, scientific research, microprocessors, satellites, coatings and others. Tungsten foil is so thin that it may be embedded in glass, other metals and laminates.

Tungsten alloying is commonly used for things such as radiation sheets, light bulb components, packaging materials, cables, shipbuilding, electro-vacuum industries, metallurgical machinery and electronics. High purity tungsten foils and sheets are also available, though not commonly used due to their brittle and hard condition; because pure tungsten is highly conductive to electricity, though, highly pure tungsten foils are used mainly in electrical applications.

 


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Please feel free to send us your requirement about our products
sales@nanoshel.com
contact@nanoshel.com
+1 646 470 4911 (US)
+36 30 4750555 (EU)
+91-9779880077 (India)



ITO Coating

ITO Coating


ITO Coating: ITO COATED GLASS (Indium tin oxide coated glass) belongs to the group of TCO (transparent conducting oxide) conductive glasses. An ITO glass has a property of low sheet resistance and high transmittance. It is mostly used in research and development. ITO coated glass substrates are widely used to organic/inorganic heterojunction solar cells, Schottky solar cells, CdTe solar cells and other various thin film solar cells as transparent semiconductor oxide electrode materials since their transparency and high conductivity.

The ITO-coatings are used whenever an electrically conductive surface with a high optical transparency is needed. These properties are obtained by sputter-coating a thin conductive layer of indium-tin-oxide on high quality glass substrates. Nanoshel gives conductive, transparent ITO–glass is often used for LCD-displays, touch screens and micro structuring applications. But there are many other typical applications for our ITO coating. They are used for the manufacturing of transparent electrodes, as integrated invisible flat antennas, antistatic windows, heating and de-icing windows with an optical function, far infrared range mirrors and for many other unique technical appliances in industry and science.

Indium-tin-oxide coatings have the capability to shield electromagnetic fields. Because of the low electrical sheet resistances, our ITO-coatings are often used for EM-shielding windows, which must be capable to transmit visible light. For research and development applications, Nanoshel manufacture ITO-coated microscope slides and cover slips at any common size used in science.

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ITO Coating

ITO Coating

ITO coatings are among the most widely used transparent conductive coatings. Because ITO can offer transparency and conductivity, it is used to coat materials that do not conduct electric current such as plastics. ITO when used in non conductive materials helps to prevent electrostatic charging. Any application that requires highly visible light transmission and a surface that is electrically conductive can make use of indium tin oxide coatings.

ITO coatings are available at Nanoshel that manufacture liquid crystal displays, heaters, head-up displays, plasma displays and touch panels. Other manufacturers use these thin films in making aircraft windshields, organic LEDs and solar panels. Most importantly, ITO (indium tin oxide) is used to make a number of optical coatings and glass substrates. The coatings are used in the manufacture of high expansion glasses, high index glasses and sheet glasses. Plastic and temperature sensitive substances can also be coated with indium tin oxide. For instance, fiber optic devices can have these coatings in order to enhance conductivity. There are many other applications where these thin films can be used.

Optical coatings like infrared-reflecting coatings are usually made using ITO. These ITO films have different optical and electronic properties. They must contain a certain density of charge carriers in order to conduct. Sometimes the thin films are designed using high levels of charge carriers in order to boost their conductivity. However, when the level of conductivity increases their transparency lowers. This has been a challenge because of difficulty in maintaining transparency while making sure the coatings are conductive and flexible. The density of charge carriers on the thin films will depend on the kind of application they will be used for.

The best ITO coatings are designed to minimize glare and boost clarity especially when they are used in making digital displays. The coatings are able to provide clear images while ensuring the surface conducts electrical current effectively.

When used in extreme environments, the coatings can provide high optical performance. These coatings can be used to make military, medical and avionics displays. When used in such extreme applications, the coatings are designed to maintain the highest level of durability and offer optical performance. The processes involved in the making of indium tin oxide coatings should be well monitored if they will be used in sensitive environments.

ITO coatings can basically be used to fulfill different requirements. When looking for these products, ensure you choose a process that perfectly suits your needs. You also need to find a reliable manufacturer of optical coatings and ensure they have a good reputation of manufacturing quality thin film conductive coatings.

ITO Coating

Contact Us for ITO Coated Glass
From us, you can easily purchase ITO Coating Glass at great prices. Place online order and we will dispatch your order through DHL, FedEx, UPS. You can also request for a quote by mailing us at sales@nanoshel.com Contact: +1 302 268 6163 (US and Europe), Contact: +91-9779550077 (India). We invite you to contact us for further information about our company and our capabilities. At Nanoshel, we could be glad to be of service to you. We look forward to your suggestions and feedback.