Monthly Archives: October 2017

Colloidal Silica (Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles Dispersion)

COLLOIDAL SILICA – SiO2 Nanoparticles Dispersion

Colloidal Silica is suspensions of silicon dioxide nanoparticles in water or various organic solvents such as ethanol or mineral oil. Nanoshel manufactures oxide nanopowders and nanoparticles with typical particle sizes ranging from 10 to 200nm and in coated and surface functionalized forms.

Nanoparticles have some special properties in optical, electric, thermal, and magnetic aspects. SiO2 is not only an important kind of semi conductive material but also used as the filler of plastic, rubber, coating and gooey because of its good properties of heat-resistance, weather ability and chemical stability. At present there are many preparation methods, but most of them concentrate on preparing SiO2 nanoparticles in solid state or dispersed in organic solvent. These methods are suitable for preparing the polymer-base composite material but difficult to prepare SiO2 nanoparticles/polymer emulsion coating or adhesive because nanoparticles are not easy to disperse uniformly in water system because of their strong hydrophilic properties.

SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in water can be prepared from silicon by the way of “formation in situ” and “surface-modification in situ “. This kind of preparation method would be widely adopted because of being simple and convenient and cheap in price and effectively resolving dispersion stability of SiO2 nanoparticles in water.

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Colloidal Silica

Silicon Dioxide Dispersion

The chemical and physical characteristics of the different types of amorphous silicon dioxide dispersions contribute to the versatility of these compounds in a variety of commercial applications. Traditionally, silica has had a broad spectrum of product usage including such areas as viscosity control agents in inks, paints, corrosion-resistant coatings, etc. and as excipients in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In the food industry, the most important application has been as an anticaking agent in powdered mixes, seasonings, and coffee whiteners. However, amorphous silica has multifunctional properties that would allow it to act as a viscosity control agent, emulsion stabilizer, suspension and dispersion agent, desiccant, etc. The utilization of silica’s in these potential applications, however, has not been undertaken, partially because of the limited knowledge of their physiochemical interactions with other food components and partially due to their controversial status from a toxicological point of view.

Applications:

Silica oxide dispersions are common additive in food production, where it is used primarily as a flow agent in powdered foods, or to absorb water in hygroscopic applications. It is the primary component of diatomaceous earth. Colloidal silica is also used as a wine, beer, and juice fining agent. In pharmaceutical products, silica aids powder flow when tablets are formed.

In semiconductor and light-emitting-diode (LED) production, colloidal silica is a critical component for producing absolutely flat and uniform wafer surfaces. In both industries, colloidal silica performs equally well as a rough surface remover and final polishing additive, and eliminates the need for other surface preparation steps.

In chemical-mechanical planarization, colloidal silica is used to flatten out the irregularities in the films applied to the semiconductor substrates during integrated circuit fabrication. With colloidal silica, different substrates (e.g., silicon, aluminum and sapphire) can be polished to a surface roughness of nanometer, or if needed Angstrom level. In all cases, wafers can be polished to low-defect and ultra-flat surfaces.

Colloidal silica can be used as a binder in zinc-rich coatings to produce hard, durable, protective coatings that shield steel and prevent corrosion in construction environments. At the same time, colloidal silica is facilitating the conversion from Cr VI to Cr III in electroplating industries. For zinc-rich and shop-primer coatings, colloidal silica is an excellent binder for producing mechanically stronger coatings that possess excellent welding properties, as well as resist damage and corrosion. These protective coatings provide ideal protection for steel used in construction.

Paint filler (extender pigment), usually white or slightly colored, such as silicon dioxide dispersions, the refractive index is less than 1.7 of a class of pigments. It has a coating with basic physical and chemical properties of the pigment, but because of similar refractive index and film material, which is transparent in the coating, coloring power and do not have the ability to cover a coloring pigment, is an indispensable paint pigment. Since the vast majority of the filler from natural ore processing products, and its chemical stability, wear resistance, water resistance and other characteristics of a good, and inexpensive, play a role in skeleton in the paint. By increasing the thickness of the coating is filled to improve the mechanical properties of the coating, and can play durable, corrosion resistant, heat insulation, matting and so on. On the other hand it as a way of reducing the manufacturing cost of paint, using its low cost, the price is far lower than the color pigments; hiding under the premise of the film meet, appropriately added to supplement the extender pigment in paint color pigments should some volume.

 

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CuO Dispersion (Copper Oxide Dispersion)

CuO DISPERSION

CuO Dispersion: Nanodispersion are composites consisting of solid nanoparticles with sizes varying generally from 1 to 100 nm dispersed in heat transfer liquids such as water, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and so on. In the last decade, nanofluids have gained significant attention due to their enhanced thermal properties. A great deal of energy is expended heating industrial and residential buildings in the cold regions of the world.

Cupric oxide (CuO) has been studied as a p-type semiconductor material with narrow band gap because of the natural abundance of its starting material, low cost production processing, nontoxic nature, and its reasonably good electrical and optical properties. CuO dispersions are of great interest due to its potential applications in a wide variety of areas including electronic and optoelectronic devices, such as microelectromechanical systems, field effect transistors, electrochemical cells, gas sensors, magnetic storage media, solar cells, field emitters, and nanodevices for catalysis. It has also been recently emphasized that apart from the size, the shape of the nanostructure is equally important for controlling different properties such as optical absorption in CuO nanostructures and the catalytic activities.

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CuO Dispersion

Copper Oxide Dispersion

In addition to some shared properties of metal oxide nanodispersions, such as TiO2, ZnO, WO3, and SnO2, CuO Dispersion have other unique magnetic and super hydrophobic properties. Furthermore, these nanostructures show very promising applications in heterogeneous catalysis in the complete conversion of hydrocarbons into carbon dioxide, enhancement of thermal conductivity of nanofluids, nanoenergetic materials, and super-hydrophobic surfaces or anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs).

However, this material has not got attention of scientists at right level until recent years. Compared with other oxides of transition metal such as Fe2O3, TiO2, and ZnO only few reports have described the synthesis strategies adopted for CuO nanodispersions along with the introduction of their related applications.

 

Effect of Starting Materials

Solvent is one of the most important components of wet chemical methods as solvent has a crucial effect on the product. Due to the critical role of solvent, it is sometimes used to name a particular wet chemical approach, for example, alcohol-thermal synthesis or DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) route. Two primary criteria for the solvents used to synthesize CuO dispersion are as follows: (i) they dissolve copper and alkali hydroxide compounds and (ii) they can be washed away easily or decomposed during the washing and drying process without leaving any detrimental impurities or residues in the final nanoproduct. There are many secondary factors that great attention should be paid for the synthesis process such as viscosity, surface tension, volatility, reactivity, toxicity, and cost.

Salt and Alkali Metal Solution.

According to previous study, any kind of soluble copper salts could be used as precursor to prepare CuO nanodispersions without much difference or at least there seems to be no report on the influence of copper salt precursor. Various copper salts such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate, acetate were used to prepare CuO nanomaterials. However, particle size and uniformity of copper nanoparticles prepared from copper acetate seem better than those from inorganic copper salt. A reasonable explanation is that carboxylate groups are still adsorbed on the surface of the copper oxide nanoparticles and play the role of a surfactant and suppress nanoparticles from growth and aggregating process.

Field-Emission Properties of Copper Oxide Nanodispersion

Field emission, one of the most fascinating properties of nanostructured materials for the practical application in vacuum microelectronic devices such as field-emission displays, X-ray sources, and microwave devices, has been studied extensively in the past few decades. During this time, carbon-based materials, especially carbon nano-tubes, were studied as promising materials for field emitters due to their high mechanical stability, good conductivity, low turn-on field, and large emission currents. Importantly, it appeared that metal oxide nanostructures emitters, as compared to car-bon nanotubes emitters, are more stable in harsh environments and have controllable electrical properties.

Applications

CuO first attracted attention of chemists as a good catalyst in organic reactions but recently discovered applications of CuO such as high-Tc superconductors, gas sensors, solar cells, emitters, electronic cathode materials also make this material a hot topic for physicists and materials science engineers. Some of the most interesting applications of CuO nanomaterials are sensing, photo catalyst and super capacitor are as follows:

Sensing Applications: It is surface conductivity that makes CuO an ideal material for semiconductor resistive gas sensor applications and in fact CuO nanomaterials were used for detection of many different compounds such as CO, hydrogen cyanide, and glucose. As sensing properties closely relate to the chemical reaction on the surface of sensor, the specific area is a key factor to achieve high sensitivity sensor. Due to the high surface area/volume ratio, the sensing property of CuO Dispersion was enhanced greatly. The shape of CuO nanostructures was also believed to affect significantly the sensing properties of CuO nanomaterials; for example, spherical crystals often show higher sensitivity than columnar one.

Photo catalyst and Solar Energy Conversion: Water pollution due to organic wastage from industry production has become a serious problem in the world today. Most of organic compounds in waste water are toxic and cannot be decomposed naturally so they need to be treated with care before disposal. CuO is a promising candidate due to low cost and abundance As a p type semiconductor of narrow band gap in visible region, CuO is expected to be a good material for application in photo catalyst and solar energy conversion. However, some researchers reported that CuO shows almost no or very little photo catalyst properties under visible light. Adding some amount of H2O2 could help to greatly improve the photo catalyst efficiency under visible light.

 

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ZnO Dispersion (Zinc Oxide Dispersion)

ZnO DISPERSION

ZnO Dispersion: A stable colloidal dispersion is expected to remain without sedimentation even after prolonged periods of storage. The settling behavior of dispersions depends mainly on the size and density of the dispersed particles. Dispersion of nanopowders into liquids is a challenging task. The high surface area and surface energy which are responsible for the beneficial effects of Nanomaterials cause agglomeration of particles which leads to poor quality dispersions.

Stabilization of metal oxide nanoparticles are extensively studied over the past few years. As a promising semiconductor material, ZnO finds lot of applications in optoelectronic devices, photo catalysts, cosmetics, pigments, paints, ceramics, solar cells, varistors, sensors etc. The properties of ZnO can be tailor made by reducing the size, whereby the specific surface area gets increases which increases the chemical activity.

Zinc oxide in a dispersed form is used in a number of formulations which contain Water. Such formulations include sun screening preparations, cosmetics and veterinary products. The preparation of these formulations is greatly eased if the Zinc oxide is available in the form of an aqueous dispersion which can be readily incorporated into the formulation. However, stable dispersions of Zinc oxide are difficult to prepare and the Zinc oxide may dissolve at low or high pH values.

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ZnO Dispersion

Zinc Oxide Dispersion

In particular, the unique properties and utility of nanoparticles also arise from a variety of attributes, including the similar size of nanoparticles and biomolecules such as proteins and polynucleic acids. Additionally, nanoparticles can be fashioned with a wide range of metals and semiconductor core materials that impart useful properties such as fluorescence and magnetic behavior. Moreover, unlike their bulk counterparts, nanoparticles have reduced size associated with high surface/volume ratios that increase as the nanoparticles size decreases. As the particle size decreases to some extent, a large number of constituting atoms can be found around the surface of the particles, which makes the particles highly reactive with prominent physical properties. Nanoparticles of particular materials have unique material properties, hence, manipulation and control of the material properties via mechanistic means is needed.

Dispersing property: Additives can improve the degree of zinc oxide dispersion in a given medium and prevent reagglomeration of the aggregates. A 1-3% addition (in reference to zinc oxide) of polyacrylic acid (sodium salt; MW 2100) performs well for dispersion stabilization in most aqueous systems.

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowders are available as powders and dispersions. These nanodispersions exhibit antibacterial, anti-corrosive, antifungal and UV filtering properties. Zinc is a Block D, Period 4 element while Oxygen is a Block P, Period 2 element. Some of the synonyms of zinc oxide nanoparticles dispersions are oxydatum, zinci oxicum, permanent white, ketozinc and oxozinc.

Applications of ZnO dispersion

The zinc oxide dispersions can be used as a UV-absorber, for catalytic applications, electronic applications, production of antifungal or antibacterial materials, sensors, actuators, photovoltaic devices, conductive coatings, among other applications.

  1. Rubber tires: zinc oxide dispersion for silicon rubber, boots, rubber gloves and other labor products, it can greatly extend the life of the products, and improve their appearance and color. It is irreplaceable in by other traditional carbon black surfactant in the use of clear or colored rubber products. Zinc oxide dispersion can also greatly improve products wear resistance and sealing effect.
  2. Paint coating: zinc oxide dispersion can make coating with UV shielding to absorb infrared rays and sterilization Antifungal and improve paint with stain resistance, resistance to artificial aging, water-alkali resistance, abrasion resistance, hardness and adhesion, and other traditional mechanical properties.
  3. Pottery field: ZnO dispersion sinters the temperature which can be reduced 40-60 centigrade in pottery field.
  4. Fiber and textile: ZnO dispersion effectively protects the fiber and clothes from the ultraviolet radiation and infrared ray.
  5. Sun proof cosmetic: Zinc Oxide is used in cosmetics primarily as a skin protectant and for UV attenuation. It is ideal for formulating mild or hnypoallergenic sun care products for UVA/UVB protection for babies and people with sensitive skin. Zinc Oxide is available in a wide range of primary particle sizes and varying optical properties. Notwithstanding, zinc oxide is not supplied as individual grains, but as aggregates of primary particles. The degree of aggregation is a function of the primary particle size and manufacturing process, similar to the case with TiO2. These large aggregates may reduce the protection of the formula against UV light, and likewise scatter visible light, increasing whitening when sun care products are applied on skin.

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Al2O3 Dispersion (Aluminium Oxide Dispersion)

Al2O3 DISPERSION

Al2O3 Dispersion: A wide usage of metal oxide nanoparticles and nano structured materials attracts many people to research for their controlled synthesis via new method. Because, special properties of metallic or metal oxide nanoparticles exhibited several potential application in electronics, optoelectronics, catalysis and thin film coatings. In particular, alumina nanoparticles are expected to play important roles in a variety of relevant applications, and hence, the field has generated important contributions regarding the synthesis and processing of such particles.

A suspension is a dispersion of solid particles in a liquid. A colloidal suspension is a sol having significant properties when the size of the particles is of the order of few nanometers or less. In the suspension of large particles, for example, 10 μm or larger, hydrodynamic interactions dominate the suspension flow properties and particle packing behavior. In colloidal suspensions, interaction forces between particles as well as hydrodynamic interactions play a vital role in determining the flow and particle packing properties.

Different synthesis methods have been devised, including sol-gel technique, microemulsion synthesis, mechanochemical processing, spray pyrolysis and drying, thermal decomposition of organic precursor, RF plasma synthesis, supercritical water processing, self assembling, hydrothermal processing, vapor transport process, sonochemical or microwave-assisted synthesis, direct precipitation and homogeneous precipitation. However, a disadvantage to fabrication of nanodevices is the agglomeration of nanoparticles, because of their high surface energy. To prevent the aggregation nanoparticles, the surface modification of nanoparticles can ensure their perfect dispersion. Many studies have been carried out toward the organically. Nanoparticles to enhance the surface chemical and physical properties play the key for their successful applications.

 

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Al2O3 Dispersion

Aluminium Oxide Dispersion

Aluminium oxide is one of the most versatile sorbents for preparative chromatography. Due to its amphoteric character, aluminium oxide can be used in specifically defined pH ranges. Al2O3 Dispersion s are widely used for preparative column chromatographic separations, isolation and purifications for both in laboratory and industrial production.

 

Aluminium Oxide Nanoparticles Aqueous Dispersion Application

Al2O3 nanoparticles water dispersion with phase stability, high hardness, and good dimensional stability, it can be widely used in plastics, rubber, ceramics, refractory products. In particular, it can significantly improve ceramics density, smoothness, thermal fatigue resistance, fracture toughness, creep resistance and polymer products wear resistance. Also, Al2O3 nanoparticles water dispersion is a promising material of far infrared emission, as the far-infrared emission and thermal insulation materials are used in chemical fiber products and high-pressure sodium lamp. In addition, αlpha Al2O3 nanoparticles water dispersion has a good insulation properties, it can be used in YGA laser crystal and integrate circuit base board. 1. transparent ceramics: high-pressure sodium lamps, EP-ROM window; 2. cosmetic filler; 3. single crystal, ruby, sapphire, sapphire, yttrium aluminum garnet; 4. high-strength aluminum oxide ceramic, C substrate, packaging materials, cutting tools, high purity crucible, winding axle, bombarding the target, furnace tubes; 5.  polishing materials, glass products, metal products, semiconductor materials, plastic, tape, grinding belt; 6.  paint, rubber, plastic wear-resistant reinforcement, advanced waterproof material; 7.  vapor deposition materials, fluorescent materials, special glass, composite materials and resins; 8. catalyst, catalyst carrier, analytical reagent; 9. aerospace aircraft wing leading edge

 

Al2O3 Dispersion
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