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Nanotechnology for Health workers: COVID-19 Control & Prevention

Health workers are at the front line of the COVID-19 outbreak response and as such are exposed to hazards that put them at risk of infection. Hazards include pathogen exposure, long working hours, psychological distress, fatigue, occupational burnout, stigma, and physical and psychological violence.

Based on the available evidence, the COVID-19 virus istransmitted between people through close contact anddroplets, not by airborne transmission. The people most atrisk of infection are those who are in close contact with aCOVID-19 patient or who care for COVID-19 patients.Preventive and mitigation measures are key. The mosteffective preventive measures in the community include:

  • Performing hand hygiene frequently with analcohol-based hand rub if your hands are not visiblydirty or with soap and water if hands are dirty;
  • avoiding touching your eyes, nose, and mouth;
  • practicing respiratory hygiene by coughing or sneezinginto a bent elbow or tissue and then immediatelydisposing of the tissue;
  • wearing a medical mask if you have respiratorysymptoms and performing hand hygiene after disposingof the mask;
  • Maintaining social distance (a minimum of 1 metre)from persons with respiratory symptoms.

Additional precautions are required by health care workersto protect themselves and prevent transmission in thehealthcare setting. Precautions to be implemented by healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 includeusing face masks, sanitizers, and gloves appropriately; this involves selecting proper safety measures and being trained in how to put on, remove, and disposeof it.

Nanoparticles for the Prevention of COVID-19

Various applications have been found in the medical field; for example Ag NPs, they can beused for biosensors, drug delivery systems, and medical devices. Because of their wideantibacterial and antiviral spectrum, there are particularly high expectations for the suppression ofmultidrug-resistant bacteria. Ag NPs are combined with a cationic polymer to produce a bactericidal materials.

Ag NPs,focusing on environment-friendly synthesis, their effect on microorganisms and viruses, and theirapplication to medical devices, particularly the suppression of infections in both patients and healthcare workers.

“Emerging” infectious diseases (EIDs) can be defined as infections that have newly appearedin a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. Among recent examples are COVID-19, Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus(MERS-CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), infection with MRSA, and Cholera.The (HCWs)healthcare workers involved during medical treatment of EID patients have a fatal risk of contact infection.

The Ag NPs have a strong microbicidal activity with a broad spectrum.So, the Ag NPs yield reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress in addition to the generation of free silver ions. Therefore, Ag NPs will provideuseful materials to protect healthcare workers from the risk of contact infection.

To prevent contact infection,healthcare workers (HCWs) usually wear protective clothing. Pathogenic microbes, which are mainly generated by patients,stay alive on the surfaces of protective clothing. It is necessary to develop an evidence-based protective clothing for HCWs. Especially, there is a risk of infection by incorrect contact whenremoving the clothing. To overcome this problem, scientists carried out research with the aim of developinga new microbicidal/antiviral material, using Ag NPs absorbed on a polymer sheet with a nanoscale fiber-like surface structure.

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