Home» Nanotechnology in Construction Industry
The latest researches on nanomaterials and nanotechnologies showed the potential use of these materials in deferent fields such as construction, medicine, energy automobile industry, and so on. This is due to the special characteristics of materials at the nano scale. Nanotechnology research and product development are actively conducted in industries that manufacture advanced materials. Building and construction materials sector are one of the main beneficiaries of these researches. With these applications the materials resistances can be improved and increasing of their durability of concrete, steel, glass and buffer materials. The largest amount of pollutants are due to the production of various construction materials and to the energy required during their service the Improving of materials by nanotechnology will reduce environmental pollution by reducing the carbon of the building materials, such as cement, and the use of performance thermal insulations will result in efficient use of energy for air conditioning.
Nanotechnology can generate products with many unique characteristics that can improve the current construction materials: lighter and stronger structural composites, low maintenance coatings, better cementations materials, lower thermal transfer rate of fire retardant and insulation, better sound absorption of acoustic absorbers and better reflectivity of glass. When the dimensions of a material are decreased from macro size to nano size, significant changes in electronic conductivity, optical absorption chemical reactivity and mechanical properties occur. With decrease in size, more atoms are located on the surface of the particle. Nano powders have a remarkable surface area. The surface area imparts a serious change of surface energy and surface morphology. All these factors alter the basic properties and the chemical reactivity of the nanomaterials. The change in properties causes improved catalytic ability,''' tunable wavelength-sensing ability' and better-designed pigments and paints with self-cleaning and self-healing Nano sized particles have been used.
Applications of nanotechnology in civil engineering are numerous. Nanotechnology can be used for design and construction processes in many areas since nanotechnology generated products have many unique characteristics. These characteristics can significantly fix current construction problems, and may change the requirement and organization of construction process. For example Steel is a noteworthy development material. Its properties are essential for the design and construction. It is conceivable to grow new, low carbon, superior steel (HPS). The new steel was created with higher consumption protection and weld capacity by joining copper nanoparticles from at the steel grain limits.
Likewise, the coatings fusing certain nanoparticles have been created for certain reason. It is one of the significant utilization of nanotechnology in development. Another illustration is TiO2 which is utilized to coat coating on account of its disinfecting and against fouling properties and it is hydrophilic, which enable the water to spread equally finished the surface and wash away previously broken down. Other special coatings additionally have been created, such as, thermal control, vitality sawing, and anti reflection coatings.
Addition of nano scale materials into cement could enhance its execution. Utilization of nano-SiO2 could fundamentally expand the compressive for concrete, containing huge volume fly ash, at early age and enhance pore measure circulation by filling the pores between substantial fly slag and cement particles at nano scale. The dispersion/slurry of undefined nano silica is utilized to enhance isolation protection for self-compacting concrete. It has additionally been accounted for that including little measure of carbonnanotubes (1%) by weight could increment both compressive and flexural strength.
Increased consumption of raw materials in the construction industry affects the environment, economy, and society. Lack of raw materials causes prices to increase. The use of nano-based materials can reduce the amount of raw or bulk materials needed to achieve or surpass similar strength and durability properties. A good example illustrating the impact of nanotechnology on the environment is the cement production process. At an annual production rate of 2.35 billion tons, cement manufacturing is responsible for large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and pollutants. Research expects that by reducing 10% of CO2 in cement production facilities could accomplish 20% of the goal identified in the Kyoto Protocol.
New materials and products based on nanotechnology can be found in building insulation, coatings, and solar technologies. Work now underway in nanotech labs will soon result in new products for lighting, structures, and energy. In the building industry, nanotechnology has already brought to market self-cleaning windows, smog-eating concrete, and many other advances. But these advances and currently available products are minor compared to those incubating in the world’s nanotech labs today. There, work is underway on illuminating walls that change colour with the flip of a switch, nanocomposites as thin as glass yet capable of supporting entire buildings, and photosynthetic surfaces making any building facade a source of free energy. Most of glass in construction is on the exterior surface of buildings and the control of light and heat entering through building glazing is a major sustainability issue.