Bio Nano Conjugation is a chemical strategy to form a stable covalent link between two molecules, at least one of which is a biomolecule. Proteins and other biopolymers regulate and perform biological functions by binding to ligands. “Novel functional bio-materials make possible transformative new opportunities to impact society in a beneficial way.”
The ability to create functional biomolecules through bioconjugation has affected every discipline of life sciences. As new cross-linking techniques and reagent are developed, novel applications in ligand discovery, disease diagnosis, and high throughput screening are being advanced through the development of new unique bioconjugates. These methods owe their existence to the discovery of chemo selective reactions that enable bio nano conjugation under physiological conditions.
The initial enthusiasm over the attainment of complete genetic information about various organisms has, however, been tempered by the realization that the utility of this information is nearly inaction able without knowledge of the function of the encoded proteins. Elucidation of the functions of other biomolecules, such as RNA and carbohydrates, is likewise imperative. “Bioconjugation”, which refers to the covalent derivatization of biomolecules, provides a means to attain this goal.
We focus on modern methods for bioconjugation, and delineate both imperatives and means for making useful bioconjugates. We restrict our analysis to wild-type proteins composed of the 20 amino acids encoded by genetics, or close analogues thereof. Strategies involving the addition of an exogenous domain and its subsequent modification have been reviewed elsewhere.
Nanoshel provide the custom synthesis of the conjugation of different functionalized groups to nanoparticles is necessary for their stability, functionality, and biocompatibility and develops their application fields, and provides them with novel and improved properties. Nanoshel attached a range of functionalized groups to the nanoparticles including low molecular weight ligands, peptides, proteins, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids, DNA, plasmids, and RNA.
Nanoparticles have been often studied due to their unique surface, chemical inertness, high electron density, and strong optical absorption. In recent decades, Nanoshel nanoparticles have been applied in genomics, clinical chemistry, vaccine development, immunoassay, biosensor, diagnosis, and microorganism’s control, cancer-cell imaging, and drug delivery. In addition, the Nanoparticles conjugated by prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) RNA aptamer after loading of doxorubicin can be useful as therapeutic agents for diagnosis and treating of prostate cancer.
Recently, bio-conjugated QDs have often become inevitable parts of biology and biotechnology for imaging of molecules, cells, tissues and animals. Covalent or noncovalent conjugates of QDs with antibodies, proteins, peptides, aptamers, nucleic acids, small molecules, and liposome’s can be considered as bioconjugated QDs, which are extensively used for direct and indirect labeling of extracellular proteins and sub cellular organelles. Bioconjugated QDs are ideal substitutes for organic dyes when photo stability or multiplexing is a requirement and excitation laser source is a limitation.
Applications of Bio Nano Conjugation
Biomolecules enabled their application to various fields like medicine and materials. Synthetically modified biomolecules can have diverse functionalities, such as tracking cellular events, determining protein biodistribution, revealing enzyme function, imaging specific biomarkers, and delivering drugs to targeted cells. Bioconjugation links biomolecules with different substrates.
Qualitative and quantitative detection of analytes in clinical samples is crucial for the early diagnosis of disease. The complexity and heterogeneity of clinical samples presents a challenging environment for the detection of individual molecules. Chromatographic purification of analyte prior to analysis is time-consuming and labor-intensive, and hence impractical. Accordingly, chemical and immunological methods have become favored for medical diagnoses.
Clinical chemistry exploits an intrinsic physicochemical property of the analyte to generate a unique signal, thus circumventing analyte purification. Examples of this approach include spectrophotometric detection of metal ions and chromogenic and fluorogenic substrate-based assays for characterizing enzymes of interest. Clinical chemistry approaches are limited to special cases because many analytes lack a unique signal-generating property. Moreover, clinical chemistry approaches are often not sensitive enough to be useful in clinical regimes.
In comparison to chemical methods, immunological approaches are often more sensitive. The high specificity of antibody–antigen interactions avoids sample purification. Moreover, since antibodies can be generated against almost any analyte, this method is widely applicable.
Immobilized enzymes are used as industrial catalysts. The first commercial application of immobilized enzymes was the resolution of amino acids by an aminocyclase. Applications in the food industry include use of fumarase to catalyze the isomerization of fumaric acid to malic acid. The pharmaceutical industry employs immobilized enzymes for the synthesis of drugs. For example, immobilized penicillin amidase is used in the preparation of 6-aminopenicillanic acid. Applications of bioconjugation are also prevalent in the chemical industry. One prominent example is the use of immobilized nitrile hydratase for the production of acryl amide from acrylonitrile.
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