Gallium Arsenide Nanoparticles
Gallium Arsenide Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles research is currently one of the most active branches of science with many of applications in various fields. Gallium arsenide is a semiconductor with excellent electronic properties. The morphology of gallium arsenide nanoparticles is gray cubic crystals. Gallium arsenide nanoparticles are graded as toxic and dangerous for the environment.
To start off with the basics: gallium arsenide is composed of 2 base elements; gallium and arsenic. When these two individual elements bind together, they form the aforementioned compound, which displays many interesting characteristics. Gallium arsenide is a semiconductor with greater saturated electron velocity and electron mobility than that of silicon. A semiconductor is a material that has electrical conductivity between an insulator and a conductor; it may vary its ability to conduct electricity when it is cool versus when it is hot. This makes it very useful in many applications. Another novel quality to gallium arsenide is that it has a direct band gap. This is a quality that denotes a compound that can emit light efficiently.
GaAs is an important semiconductor that finds applications in the electronic industry especially in optoelectronic devices and solar cells. GaAs thin films were originally synthesized by the metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method.
Properties of Gallium Arsenide NPs:
|Crystal structure||zinc blende|
|Melting point||1238 °C|
|Band gap (eV) at 300 K||1.424|
|Intrinsic carrier conc||1.79 x 106 cm-3|
|Intrinsic resistivity||108 ohm.cm|
|Breakdown field||4 x 105 V/cm|
|Minority carrier lifetime||10-8 s|
The low intrinsic carrier density of GaAs in a pure (undoped) form indicates that GaAs is intrinsically a very poor conductor and is commonly referred to as being semi-insulating. This property is usually altered by adding dopants of either the p- (positive) or n- (negative) type. This semi-insulating property allows many active devices to be grown on a single substrate, where the semi-insulating GaAs provides the electrical isolation of each device; an important feature in the miniaturization of electronic circuitry, i.e., VLSI (very-large-scale-integration) involving over 100,000 components per chip (one chip is typically between 1 and 10 mm square).
• Electron mobility:
The higher electron mobility in GaAs than in Si potentially means that in devices where electron transit time is the critical performance parameter, GaAs devices will operate with higher response times than equivalent Si devices. However, the fact that hole mobility is similar for both GaAs and Si means that devices relying on cooperative electron and hole movement, or hole movement alone, show no improvement in response time when GaAs based.
Applications of Gallium arsenide NPs:
Gallium arsenide NPs is used in the manufacture of light-emitting diode s (LEDs), which are found in optical communications and control systems. Gallium arsenide can replace silicon in the manufacture of linear ICs and digital ICs. Linear (also called analog) devices include oscillator s and amplifier s. Digital devices are used for electronic switching, and also in computer systems.
• Gallium arsenide NPs can be used to manufacture devices such as monolithic microwave integrated circuits, microwave frequency integrated circuits, infrared light-emitting diodes, solar cells, laser diodes and optical windows.
• GaAs has a direct band gap unlike many other semiconductors implying it can emit light with high efficiency. Being a direct band gap material, it is resistant to radiation damage enabling its use in optical windows and space electronics in high power applications.
• Gallium arsenide nanowires can be used for high technology applications such as electronics, optics, and photovoltaic’s.
• It is also used as an electrical substrate and offers natural isolation between circuits and devices. This makes it suitable for millimeter wave and microwave ICs.
• Solar cells based on GaAs power the Opportunity and Spirit rovers that are exploring the surface of Mars. A number of solar cars make use of GaAs in solar arrays.
• GaAs diodes are used to detect X-rays.
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