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Graphene is basically, a single atomic layer of graphite; an abundant mineral which is an allotrope of carbon. That is made up of very tightly bonded carbon atom organized into a hexagonal lattic. Its sp2 hybridization & very thin atomic thickness. These properties are enable graphene to break so many records in term of strength, electricity & heat conduction. These properties are enable graphene to break so many records in term of strength, electricity & heat conduction. Among various applications, #biomedical applications of graphene have attracted ever-increasing interests over the last decade years. The applications of graphene is #biomedical (medical science, drug delivery, drug delivery, medical devices ).
Graphene Nanoparticles Applications: Properties
Graphene Nanoparticles Applications
Graphene is now expanding its territory beyond electronic and chemical applications toward biomedical areas such as precise biosensing through graphene- quenched fluorescence, graphene-enhanced cell differentiation and growth, and graphene-assisted laser desorption/ionization for mass spectrometry. Graphene derivatives based on chemical and physical properties has hindered the biological application of graphene derivatives. The development of an efficient graphene-based biosensor requires stable biofunctionalization of graphene derivatives under physiological conditions with minimal loss of their unique properties.
Now a day’s graphene becomes exceptional material for the drug delivery and biomedical application. Due to its ultrahigh surface area and easy surface fictionalization, single-layered graphene has been intensively explored for drug and gene delivery. Utilizing their intrinsic high near-infrared absorbance, graphene and its derivatives have been found to be excellent candidates for multimodal imaging guided combined cancer photothermal and chemo- and/or photodynamic therapies.
Graphene Oxide has suitable functional groups such as carboxyl, epoxyl and hydroxyl, GO produced by vigorous oxidation of graphite by Hummers method, is an ideal nanocarrier for efficient drug and gene delivery. The unique structural features, such as large and planar sp2 hybridized carbon domain, high specific surface area (2630 m2/g), and enriched oxygen-containing groups, render GO excellent biocompatibility, and physiological solubility and stability, and capability of loading of drugs or genes via chemical conjugation or physisorption approaches. The reactive COOH and OH groups GO bears facilitate conjugation with various systems, such as polymers, biomolecules (biotargeting ligand), DNA, protein, quantum dot, Fe3O4 nanoparticles, imparting GO with multi-functionalities and multi-modalities for diverse biological and medical applications. Efficient nanocarrier for delivery of water insoluble aromatic anticancer drugs into cells. Combined use of multiple drugs is a widely adopted clinical practice in cancer therapy to overcome drug resistance of cancer cells. The exploration of GO-based drug delivery expands from anticancer drugs to other drugs for non-cancer diseases treatment.
Graphene with in vitro stem cell engineering, to better understand the mechanisms behind the interactive effects and further develop graphene as a platform for tissue engineering applications Graphene substrates have been shown to accelerate and direct the differentiation of mesenchymal and neural stem cells into osteoblasts and neurons, respectively, suggesting in particular the use of graphene as a platform to control stem cell differentiation. This engineering technique can be applied to bone, cartilage, muscle, skin, blood vessels, and to most other organs. Among these different therapies, all the engineering techniques share some common material factors: surfaces that interface with living cells, scaffolds that guide cell growth and modulation, and carriers to deliver bioactive molecules. Furthermore, in combination with stem cell (SCs) technology, materials with qualities appropriate for directing differentiation of SCs has now become much more critical for tissue engineering. Graphene is one of the most versatile nanomaterials currently available because of its exceptional properties.
Gene therapy is a novel and promising approach to treat various diseases caused by genetic disorders, and cancer. Successful gene therapy requires a gene vector that protects DNA from nuclease degradation and facilitates cellular uptake of DNA with high transfection efficiency. The major challenge facing the development of gene therapy is lack of efficient and safe gene vectors. That GO-CS sheets have a high drug payload, and the CPT-loaded GO-CS exhibits better cancer cell killing ability than the pure CPT. Further work on simultaneous loading and delivery of chemical drug and gene by the GO-CS nanocarrier for combined chemo- and gene- therapy is highly desired, to gain an enhanced therapeutic efficacy.