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Metal-nanoparticles In the last decade the use of Metal Nanoparticles has been having a great impact in bio sensing. In particular, the unique properties of noble metal Nanoparticles have allowed for the development of new bio sensing platforms with enhanced capabilities in the specific detection of bioanalytes. Noble metal Nanoparticles show unique physicochemical properties (such as ease of functionalization via simple chemistry and high surface-to-volume ratios) that allied with their unique spectral and optical properties have prompted the development of a plethora of bio sensing platforms. Additionally, they also provide an additional or enhanced layer of application for commonly used techniques, such as fluorescence, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Herein we review the use of noble metal nano particles for bio sensing strategies—from synthesis and functionalization to integration in molecular diagnostics platforms, with special focus on those that have made their way into the diagnostics laboratory.
Metal-nanoparticles are, in general, one of the most common nanotechnology-based approaches for enveloping biosensors, due to their simplicity, physiochemical malleability and high surface areas. They can measure between 1 to 100 nm in diameter, have different shapes and can be composed of one or more inorganic compounds, such as noble metals, heavy metals, iron, etc. The majority of them exhibit size-related properties that differ significantly from those observed in micro particles or bulk materials.
Metal-nanoparticles on their size and composition we can observe peculiar properties, such as quantum confinement in semiconductor nanocrystals, surface Plasmon resonance in some Metal Nanoparticles and super para magnetism in magnetic materials. Noble metal NPs, in particular gold and silver NPs, are among the most extensively studied Nanomaterials and have led to the development of numerous techniques and methods for molecular diagnostics, imaging, drug delivery and the rapeutics. Most of their unique physicochemical properties at the nanoscale, such as Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR), have been explored for the development of new biosensors. This review will focus on these unique physicochemical properties of noble Metal Nanoparticles that have thus far been explored for the development of new highly sensitive and specific bio sensing techniques, favouring those that have already been successfully tested with biological samples. While some recent reports have addressed specific bio-application for noble Metal Nanoparticles,
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