Laser ablation (LA) is a process in which a laser beam is focused on a sample surface to remove material from the irradiated zone. Laser ablation has been considered and used for many technical applications, including: the production of nano materials, deposition of thin metallic and dielectric films, fabrication of superconducting materials, routine welding and bonding of metal parts, and micromachining of MEMS structures. Recently in Nanoshel laser ablation has been used for the production of various materials.
The laser pyrolysis technique is usually classified as a vapor-phase synthesis process which is also used in Nanoshel for the production of nanoparticles. In this class of synthesis routes, nanoparticles formation starts abruptly when a sufficient degree of super saturation of condensable products is reached in the vapor phase. Once nucleation occurs, fast particle growth takes place by coalescence/coagulation rather than further nucleation.
The ball milling method: A ball mill contains a stainless steel container and many small iron, hardened steel, silicon carbide, or tungsten carbide balls are made to rotate inside a mill (drum). The powder of a material is taken inside the steel container. This powder will be made into nanosize using the ball milling technique. Nanoshel uses this method for reducing the size of Nanoparticles.
Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) can be considered as a special case of evaporation for single crystal film growth, with highly controlled evaporation of a variety of sources in Ultrahigh-vacuum of typically ?10
Chemical vapor Deposition (CVD) is chemical process used to give high quality, high performance, and solid materials. Here one or more volatile precursors are transported via the vapor phase to the reaction chamber, where they decompose on a heated substrate. Nanoshel have both vertical as well as horizontal CVD used to produce various materials.