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Graphene Oxide/ Reduce Graphene Oxide
While graphite is a 3 dimensional carbon based material made up of millions of layers of graphene, graphite oxide is a little different. By the oxidation of graphite using strong oxidizing agents, oxygenated functionalities are introduced in the graphite structure which not only expand the layer separation, but also makes the material hydrophilic (meaning that they can be dispersed in water). This property enables the graphite oxide to be exfoliated in water using sonication, ultimately producing single or few layer graphene, known as graphene oxide (GO). The main difference between graphite oxide and graphene oxide is, thus, the number of layers. While graphite oxide is a multilayer system in a graphene oxide dispersion a few layers flakes and monolayer flakes can be found.
The advantage of Reduce Graphene Oxide is its easy dispersability in water & other organic solvents. On the other hand in terms of electrical conductivity, graphene oxide is an electrical insulator due to disruption of its sp2 bonding networks. Reduce Graphene Oxide by using chemical reduction is a very scalable method.
Reduce Graphene Oxide
Reduce Graphene Oxide has suitable functional groups such as carboxyl, epoxyl and hydroxyl , GO produced by vigorous oxidation of graphite by Hummers method, is an ideal nanocarrier for efficient drug and gene delivery. The unique structural features, such as large and planar sp2 hybridized carbon domain, high specific surface area (2630 m2/g), and enriched oxygen-containing groups, render GO excellent biocompatibility, and physiological solubility and stability, and capability of loading of drugs or genes via chemical conjugation or physisorption approaches. The reactive COOH and OH groups GO bears facilitate conjugation with various systems, such as polymers, biomolecules (biotargeting ligand), DNA, protein , quantum dot, Fe3O4 nanoparticles, imparting GO with multi-functionalities and multi-modalities for diverse biological and medical applications. Efficient nanocarrier for delivery of water insoluble aromatic anticancer drugs into cells. Combined use of multiple drugs is a widely adopted clinical practice in cancer therapy to overcome drug resistance of cancer cells. The exploration of GO-based drug delivery expands from anticancer drugs with other drugs for non-cancer disease treatment.
Substrates for Antibacterial Effects:
The Graphene Oxide and Reduce Graphene Oxide exhibit inhibition effect of bacterial growth gram positive and gram negative on the surfaces. The antibacterial effect of Reduce Graphene Oxide nanowalls is higher than that of Reduce Graphene Oxide nanowalls because of more efficient charge transfer of RGO with bacterial cells. The antibacterial effect of graphene derivatives was derived from oxidative stress induced by membrane disruption.
Graphene-nanoparticle composites have been used in different area of science. In particular graphene/GO/RGO has been used as coating material or stabilizer for nanoparticle, as conducting catalyst support, for assembling nanoparticle on their surface and as media for controlling aggregation of nanoparticle. Similarly, the presence of nanoparticle lowers the aggregation property of graphene and thus it’s high surface area and other properties largely remain intact. As a result G-N based composites have combined property of both components, suitable for various applications. In the following sections we will discuss some of the emerging areas where they have been used, highlighting their advantages and our own contribution in some of the areas. The application of nanomaterials in membrane biofouling control is detailed. They can also be used in other water treatment related surfaces such as storage tanks and distribution pipes to control pathogen contamination, biofilm formation, and microbial influenced corrosion. Affordable coating techniques that can economize nanomaterial use and maximize its efficacy while allowing for regeneration are in critical need.
High Performance Adsorbent for Water Purification
The different methods are available for wastewater treatment that include membrane based filtration, ion exchange, adsorption, precipitation and amalgamation. Among these techniques adsorption based method is cost effective and most widely used for removal of various pollutants from water, such as toxic metal ions, dyes and organic pollutants. Carbon based materials such as activated carbons and porous carbons are commonly used as an adsorbent. Recently graphene emerge as potential adsorbent due to high surface area and hydrophobic surface nature. Incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles between graphene or RGO effectively inhibits the aggregation between graphene sheets and between magnetic particle. Such composites show high surface area and magnetic property and offers high separation efficiency.
Reducing food waste
Reduce Graphene Oxide used for smart food packing. While the food industry typically lags other industries, such as electronics and automobiles, in adopting new technologies, nanomaterial based applications have found their way into the food industry Also, graphene-based applications are on the rise, with innovative developments that help ensure food quality and safety. To improve agricultural productivity, pesticides, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides are commonly used, and are potentially toxic if allowed to remain in the food chain in high enough concentrations, so quality and safety of foods must be evaluated before delivery to the consumer market. Graphene is as a new sorbent in extraction from environmental, biological and food samples.
SEA WATER PURIFICATION Calcium and Magnesium ions have size 40nm in sea water so graphene sheets are used to filter out these ions. Thus sea water can be used as the drinking water