Tag Archives: nanoshel news

Nanoshel News Brings Latest Updates News About Nanotechnology Top Breaking headlines on Nano around the World www.nanoshel.com

CeO2 Nanoparticles Dispersion

CeO2 Nanoparticles Dispersion

Nanomaterials are being applied across a wide range of high-tech industries and advanced technologies due to their excellent optical, magnetic, catalytic and electronic properties. The properties of nanomaterials depend greatly on their structure, shape, and size.

Cerium is a Block F, Period 6 element. It is the most abundant of the rare earth elements, and is found in minerals bastnasite, synchysite, hydroxylbastnasite, sallanite, monazite, rhabdophane, and zircon. It is malleable and oxidizes very readily at room temperature.

CeO2 Nanoparticles Dispersion: Cerium (IV) oxide, also known as ceric oxide, ceric dioxide, ceria, cerium oxide or cerium dioxide, is an oxide of the rare-earth metal cerium. It is a pale yellow-white powder with the chemical formula CeO2. It is an important commercial product and an intermediate in the purification of the element from the ores. The distinctive property of this material is its reversible conversion to a non stoichiometric oxide.

Ceria (cerium oxide, CeO2) nano dispersion finds applications in the precision polishing of most semiconductor substrate materials including silicon, sapphire, GaAs, etc. Ceria dispersion has been shown to not only demonstrate tremendous advantages in the planarization process of most semiconductor materials but glassy materials employed in photonic applications as well.

CeO2 Nanoparticles Dispersion

CeO2 Nanoparticles Dispersion

Today, cerium oxide is largely used in the catalysis field (mainly for diesel engines), and in chemical and mechanical polishing (CMP). However, cerium oxide is also well known for its optical properties and ability to filter ultraviolet (UV) rays. Moreover, expertise ensures good size control from 5-nm diameter up to 100 nanometers. Researchers are able to obtain stable sols of cerium oxide nanoparticles with diameters of 10 nm. These sols appear as a clear liquid, since the particles are small enough to be totally transparent. For instance, at the same solid concentration (1g/l) and for similar particle size, a titanium dioxide sol appears milky.

Water-repellence and water-barrier properties are of primary importance for the durability and the stability of the coatings. The action of rain and humidity on outdoor constructions is a key factor in the degradation of the coatings because photo-degradation and final failure of the protective coating is the result of the combined action of UV, oxygen and water molecules. Moreover, water penetration in the coating leads to a lack of adherence of the coating onto the wood substrate, causing macroscopic failure. In this respect, a water absorption test on pine panels was performed, comparing a reference to a cerium oxide colloid modified alkyd formulation. The water absorption of the reference is 72 g/m2 and decreased to 45 g/m2 for the cerium oxide containing coating.

Application to Coatings

Cerium oxide nanoparticles, properly dispersed in coating formulations using the specific chemistry described previously, combine the advantages of organic ultraviolet (UV) absorbers with those of mineral additives. The cerium oxide nanoparticles ensure the durability of the UV absorption function whilst improving the hardness and strengthening the organic binders currently used in wood technology. Since the nanoparticles do not scatter light, the coating remains transparent. The transparency (i.e. no coloration, no whitening) is an important requirement for the wood coating industry; since wood is a natural material, the coating must be as neutral as possible. When the durability is targeted, colored pigments are often added to help in this way, but this negatively impacts the aesthetics of the end product. Organic UV absorbers are also efficient, but their actions are limited because of progressive destruction of active molecules (migration, leaching, photochemical activity).

Biological Applications:

Cerium Nanomaterials have unique regenerative properties owing to their low reduction potential and the coexistence of both Ce(3+)/Ce(4+) on their surfaces. Defects in the crystal lattice due to the presence of Ce(3+) play an important role in tuning the redox activity of Cerium nanomaterials. The surface Ce(3+):Ce(4+) ratio is influenced by the microenvironment. Therefore, the microenvironment and synthesis method adopted also plays an important role in determining the biological activity and toxicity of Cerium nanodispersions. The presence of a mixed valance state plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. They found to be effective against pathologies associated with chronic oxidative stress and inflammation. Also they are well tolerated in both in vitro and in vivo biological models, which make cerium nano dispersions well suited for applications in nanobiology and regenerative medicine.

 



Silver Paste

Applications of Silver Paste

In nanoscience, silver nanoparticles have been the subjects in the many works due to its specific properties on the optical, electronic, catalytic, and antibacterial materials research. The research on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was rapidly developed for last decade. It has been known as chemical reduction, electrochemical reduction, irradiation reduction, or micro emulsion methods. Through these methods, it has been possible to prepare the conducting metal nanoparticles which could be applied for metal paste, conducting ink, and conducting adhesive.

Generally, a thick-film silver paste contains a functional phase consisting of particles of different shapes (flake or spherical) and sizes (micrometer, submicron, or nanometer), and these particles are dispersed in an organic vehicle by high-energy ball milling, ultrasonic vibration, and/or mechanical stirring.

A homogeneous thick-film silver paste is a stable system in which all the components are soluble in solvent and no solid or particle phase is excluded. The paste is able to avoid thoroughly the sedimentation and/or agglomeration of the particles applied in conventional pastes and eliminates the constraints of the particle size on fine patterns dispensing.

Silver Paste

Silver Paste

In recent years, the demand for flexible print circuit (FPC) has been increasing. Ordinary FPC is produced using circuits composed of plastic films onto which copper foil is laminated. In addition, silver printing circuit board (membrane circuit board, MB) that has a structure in which conductive silver paste is screen printed on a PET (polyethylene terephthalate) film to form circuits is available.

Silver conductive paste for screen printing used for formation of circuits in the MB uses silver material in conductive particles. Although silver has a disadvantage that ion migration can occur easily, it is handled with ease since it is more resistant to oxidization compared to copper, which has specific resistance of a similar level, and hence this material is used widely.

Polymer-type conductive paste utilized in the MB is specific in that low-temperature baking at less than 150°C (PET film circuit board is capable of withstanding this temperature) is possible. Silver conductive particles are dispersed in organic binder (polymer) and if printed or baked, conductive silver particles make contact each other thereby ensuring good electrical conductance. However, with this conductive mechanism, there are many contact resistance between conductive particles, specific resistance of the circuit being formed is more than 4.0 × 105 Ω cm which is more than 30 times that of bulk silver.

Conductive paste used in the ceramics substrate is composed by conductive silver particles and glass frit, and its baking temperature is more than approximately 500°C. After baking, conductive particles are sintered and contact resistance between conductive particles is greatly reduced. Therefore, it is possible to form a low-resistance circuit having specific resistance of the order of 106 Ω cm.

As one of applications, current collection wiring of transparent conductive glass substrate (transparent conductive glass) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC), which has been attracting attention recently as the next generation solar cells, is cited. With DSC, power is taken out through transparent conductive glass used as the window electrode. Since it has a certain resistance, the power generated is lost in part while the internal resistance of the battery is increased. In order to prevent this, efforts have been made in such a way that current collection wiring is provided to transparent conductive glass so as to reduce the loss to a minimal level.



Transition Metal Nanoparticles

Transition Metal Nanoparticles

The elements in the periodic table are often divided into four categories: (1) main group elements, (2) transition metals, (3) lanthanides, and (4) actinides. The main group elements include the active metals in the two columns on the extreme left of the periodic table and the metals, semimetals, and nonmetals in the six columns on the far right. The transition metals are the metallic elements that serve as a bridge, or transition, between the two sides of the periodic table. The lanthanides and the actinides at the bottom of the table are sometimes known as the inner transition metals because they have atomic numbers that fall between the first and second elements in the last two rows of the transition metals.

Transition metals are like main group metals in many ways: They look like metals, they are malleable and ductile, they conduct heat and electricity, and they form positive ions. The fact the two best conductors of electricity are a transition metal (copper) and a main group metal (aluminum) shows the extent to which the physical properties of main group metals and transition metals overlap.

There are also differences between these metals. The transition metals are more electronegative than the main group metals, for example, and are therefore more likely to form covalent compounds.

Transition Metal Nanoparticles

Transition Metal Nanoparticles

Another difference between the main group metals and transition metals can be seen in the formulas of the compounds they form. The main group metals tend to form salts (such as NaCl, Mg3N2, and CaS) in which there are just enough negative ions to balance the charge on the positive ions.

The transition metals form similar compounds [such as FeCl3, HgI2, or Cd(OH)2], but they are more likely than main group metals to form complexes, such as the FeCl4-, HgI42-, and Cd(OH)42- ions, that have an excess number of negative ions.

The use of transition metal nanoparticles (NPs) in catalysis is crucial as they mimic metal surface activation and catalysis at the nanoscale and thereby bring selectivity and efficiency to heterogeneous catalysis. Transition metal NPs are clusters containing from a few tens to several thousand metal atoms, stabilized by ligands, surfactants, polymers or dendrimers protecting their surfaces. Their sizes vary between the order of one nanometer to several tens or hundreds of nanometers, but the most active in catalysis are only one or a few nanometers in diameter, i.e. they contain a few tens to a few hundred atoms only. This approach is also relevant to homogeneous catalysis, because there is a full continuum between small metal clusters and large metal clusters, the latter being also called colloids, sols or NPs. NPs are also well soluble in classic solvents (unlike metal chips in heterogeneous catalysis) and can often be handled and even characterized as molecular compounds by spectroscopic techniques that are well known to molecular chemists, such as  H and multinuclear NMR, infrared and UV – vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry.

 



Organic Compounds

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Organic compounds, any of a large class of chemical compounds in which one or more atoms of carbon are covalently linked to atoms of other elements, most commonly hydrogen, oxygen, or nitrogen. The few carbon-containing compounds not classified as organic include carbides, carbonates, and cyanides. See chemical compound.

The term ‘organic’ was originally coined to describe molecules associated with living organisms. This section of chemistry is therefore popularly termed “the chemistry of life”, as it was discovered and previously thought to flourish exclusively in living beings. However, this definition isn’t completely true and is not the only rule to determine whether a compound is organic or inorganic. For instance, carbon dioxide is based on carbon and is highly central to both animals and plants, but it’s far from being organic.

A popular consensus has been established, insisting that organic compounds are structures that contain carbon as well as hydrogen, bonded covalently together, collectively known as a ‘C-H’ group. This group is then further attached to nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, silicon etc. to pave the way for a plethora of organic compounds.

The enormous amount of organic compounds and their versatile nature are the result of carbon’s promiscuity, a trait that can be attributed to its unique structure. Today, nearly 2 million organic compounds have been isolated or characterized.

Organic Compounds

Organic Compounds

Chemical synthesis is concerned with the construction of complex chemical compounds from simpler ones. A synthesis usually is undertaken for one of three reasons. The first reason is to meet an industrial demand for a product. For example, ammonia is synthesized from nitrogen and hydrogen and is used to make, among other things, ammonium sulfate, employed as a fertilizer; vinyl chloride is made from ethylene and is used in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic. In general, a vast range of chemical compounds are synthesized for applications as fibers and plastics, pharmaceuticals, dyestuffs, herbicides, insecticides, and other products.

Among the numerous types of organic compounds, four major categories are found in all living things: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

Carbohydrates

Almost all organisms use carbohydrates as sources of energy. In addition, some carbohydrates serve as structural materials. Carbohydrates are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; the ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen and carbon atoms is 2:1.

Simple carbohydrates commonly referred to as sugars, can be monosaccharides if they are composed of single molecules, or disaccharides if they are composed of two molecules. The most important monosaccharide is glucose, a carbohydrate with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Glucose is the basic form of fuel in living things. In multi cellular organisms, it is soluble and is transported by body fluids to all cells, where it is metabolized to release its energy. Glucose is the starting material for cellular respiration, and it is the main product of photosynthesis.

Lipids

Lipids are organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. The ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms is much higher in lipids than in carbohydrates. Lipids include steroids (the material of which many hormones are composed), waxes, and fats.

Fat molecules are composed of a glycerol molecule and one, two, or three molecules of fatty acids. A glycerol molecule contains three hydroxyl (–OH) groups. A fatty acid is a long chain of carbon atoms (from 4 to 24) with a carboxyl (–COOH) group at one end. The fatty acids in a fat may all be alike or they may all be different. They are bound to the glycerol molecule by a process that involves the removal of water.

Nucleic acids

Like proteins, nucleic acids are very large molecules. The nucleic acids are composed of smaller units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a carbohydrate molecule (sugar), a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing molecule that, because of its properties, is a nitrogenous base.

Living organisms have two important nucleic acids. One type is deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. The other is ribonucleic acid, or RNA. DNA is found primarily in the nucleus of the cell, while RNA is found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, a semi liquid substance that composes the volume of the cell.

Applications

Organic chemistry is a highly creative science in which chemists create new molecules and explore the properties of existing compounds. Organic compounds are all around us. They are central to the economic growth of the United States in the rubber, plastics, fuel, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, detergent, coatings, dyestuff, and agrichemical industries, to name a few. The very foundations of biochemistry, biotechnology, and medicine are built on organic compounds and their role in life processes. Many modern, high-tech materials are at least partially composed of organic -compounds.

Organic chemists spend much of their time creating new compounds and developing better ways of synthesizing previously known compounds.



Indium Arsenide Nanoparticles

Indium Arsenide Nanoparticles

InAs is a semiconductor material made of arsenic and indium. The semiconductor has a melting point of 942 °C and appears in the form of grey crystals with a cubic structure. It is very similar to gallium arsenide and is a material having a direct bandgap. Indium arsenide is popular for its narrow energy bandgap and high electron mobility.

InAs, or indium monoarsenide, is a semiconductor composed of indium and arsenic. It has the appearance of grey cubic crystals with a melting point of 942 °C.

InAs is used for construction of infrared detectors, for the wavelength range of 1–3.8 µm. The detectors are usually photovoltaic photodiodes. Cryogenically cooled detectors have lower noise, but InAs detectors can be used in higher-power applications at room temperature as well. Indium arsenide is also used for making of diode lasers.

Follow us:

Indium Arsenide Nanoparticles

Indium Arsenide Nanoparticles

Indium arsenide is similar to gallium arsenide and is a direct bandgap material. Indium arsenide is sometimes used together with indium phosphide. Alloyed with gallium arsenide it forms indium gallium arsenide – a material with band gap dependent on In/Ga ratio, a method principally similar to alloying indium nitride with gallium nitride to yield indium gallium nitride.

InAs is well known for its high electron mobility and narrow energy bandgap. It is widely used as a terahertz radiation source as it is a strong photo-Dember emitter.

Quantum dots can be formed in a monolayer of indium arsenide on indium phosphide or gallium arsenide. The mismatches of lattice constants of the materials create tensions in the surface layer, which in turn leads to formation of the quantum dots. Quantum dots can also be formed in indium gallium arsenide, as InAs dots sitting in the gallium arsenide matrix.

Indium Arsenide Quantum Dots:

With the emergence of applications based on short-wavelength infrared light, indium arsenide quantum dots are promising candidates to address existing shortcomings of other infrared-emissive nanomaterials. However, III–V quantum dots have historically struggled to match the high-quality optical properties of II–VI quantum dots.

Technological improvements in the fabrication of short-wavelength infrared (SWIR, 1,000–2,000 nm) detector technology have recently inspired a new wave of optical fluorescence imaging, as longer imaging wavelengths promise increased spatiotemporal resolution, penetration depths and unprecedented sensitivity.

Indium arsenide (InAs) quantum dots (QDs) are among the most promising SWIR probes to address these challenges as they exhibit size-tunable emission, broad absorption spectra, and show higher QYs than rare earth nanocrystals (NCs) silver chalcogenide NC, or organic SWIR dyes. While much recent SWIR imaging has focused on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) the low QYs (<0.1%) and broad emission profiles of as-synthesized CNT ensembles have rendered imaging in narrow spectral windows and multiplexed imaging applications challenging. In contrast to other SWIR QDs, such as PbS or Ag2S, InAs QDs can exhibit higher QYs and probe stability after transfer from the organic phase to aqueous media. This is mostly attributed to the zincblende crystal structure of InAs QDs that allows the straightforward overcoating with a higher band gap shell consisting of established II–VI QD materials, which isolates the InAs core from the environment.

Applications of Indium Arsenide

A member of the III–V family of semiconductors, indium arsenide offers several advantages as an alternative to silicon including superior electron mobility and velocity, which makes it an oustanding candidate for future high-speed, low-power electronic devices.

Indium arsenide is used for construction of infrared detectors, for the wavelength range of 1–3.8 µm. The detectors are usually photovoltaic photodiodes. Cryogenically cooled detectors have lower noise, but InAs detectors can be used in higher-power applications at room temperature as well. Indium arsenide is also used for making of diode lasers.

Indium arsenide is similar to gallium arsenide.

InAs is sometimes used together with indium phosphide. Alloyed with gallium arsenide it forms indium gallium arsenide – a material with band gap dependent on In/Ga ratio, a method principally similar to alloying indium nitride with gallium nitride to yield indium gallium nitride.

InAs is well known for its high electron mobility and narrow energy bandgap. It is widely used as terahertz radiation source as it is a strong Photo-dember emitter.

Quantum dots can be formed in a monolayer of indium arsenide on indium phosphide or gallium arsenide. The mismatches of lattice constants of the materials create tensions in the surface layer, which in turn leads to formation of the quantum dots. Quantum dots can also be formed in indium gallium arsenide, as indium arsenide dots sitting in the gallium arsenide matri

 


Contact Us:

Please feel free to send us your requirement about our products
sales@nanoshel.com
contact@nanoshel.com
+1 646 470 4911 (US)
+36 30 4750555 (EU)
+91-9779880077 (India)



Colloidal Silica (Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles Dispersion)

COLLOIDAL SILICA – SiO2 Nanoparticles Dispersion

Colloidal Silica is suspensions of silicon dioxide nanoparticles in water or various organic solvents such as ethanol or mineral oil. Nanoshel manufactures oxide nanopowders and nanoparticles with typical particle sizes ranging from 10 to 200nm and in coated and surface functionalized forms.

Nanoparticles have some special properties in optical, electric, thermal, and magnetic aspects. SiO2 is not only an important kind of semi conductive material but also used as the filler of plastic, rubber, coating and gooey because of its good properties of heat-resistance, weather ability and chemical stability. At present there are many preparation methods, but most of them concentrate on preparing SiO2 nanoparticles in solid state or dispersed in organic solvent. These methods are suitable for preparing the polymer-base composite material but difficult to prepare SiO2 nanoparticles/polymer emulsion coating or adhesive because nanoparticles are not easy to disperse uniformly in water system because of their strong hydrophilic properties.

SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in water can be prepared from silicon by the way of “formation in situ” and “surface-modification in situ “. This kind of preparation method would be widely adopted because of being simple and convenient and cheap in price and effectively resolving dispersion stability of SiO2 nanoparticles in water.

Follow us:

Colloidal Silica

Silicon Dioxide Dispersion

The chemical and physical characteristics of the different types of amorphous silicon dioxide dispersions contribute to the versatility of these compounds in a variety of commercial applications. Traditionally, silica has had a broad spectrum of product usage including such areas as viscosity control agents in inks, paints, corrosion-resistant coatings, etc. and as excipients in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In the food industry, the most important application has been as an anticaking agent in powdered mixes, seasonings, and coffee whiteners. However, amorphous silica has multifunctional properties that would allow it to act as a viscosity control agent, emulsion stabilizer, suspension and dispersion agent, desiccant, etc. The utilization of silica’s in these potential applications, however, has not been undertaken, partially because of the limited knowledge of their physiochemical interactions with other food components and partially due to their controversial status from a toxicological point of view.

Applications:

Silica oxide dispersions are common additive in food production, where it is used primarily as a flow agent in powdered foods, or to absorb water in hygroscopic applications. It is the primary component of diatomaceous earth. Colloidal silica is also used as a wine, beer, and juice fining agent. In pharmaceutical products, silica aids powder flow when tablets are formed.

In semiconductor and light-emitting-diode (LED) production, colloidal silica is a critical component for producing absolutely flat and uniform wafer surfaces. In both industries, colloidal silica performs equally well as a rough surface remover and final polishing additive, and eliminates the need for other surface preparation steps.

In chemical-mechanical planarization, colloidal silica is used to flatten out the irregularities in the films applied to the semiconductor substrates during integrated circuit fabrication. With colloidal silica, different substrates (e.g., silicon, aluminum and sapphire) can be polished to a surface roughness of nanometer, or if needed Angstrom level. In all cases, wafers can be polished to low-defect and ultra-flat surfaces.

Colloidal silica can be used as a binder in zinc-rich coatings to produce hard, durable, protective coatings that shield steel and prevent corrosion in construction environments. At the same time, colloidal silica is facilitating the conversion from Cr VI to Cr III in electroplating industries. For zinc-rich and shop-primer coatings, colloidal silica is an excellent binder for producing mechanically stronger coatings that possess excellent welding properties, as well as resist damage and corrosion. These protective coatings provide ideal protection for steel used in construction.

Paint filler (extender pigment), usually white or slightly colored, such as silicon dioxide dispersions, the refractive index is less than 1.7 of a class of pigments. It has a coating with basic physical and chemical properties of the pigment, but because of similar refractive index and film material, which is transparent in the coating, coloring power and do not have the ability to cover a coloring pigment, is an indispensable paint pigment. Since the vast majority of the filler from natural ore processing products, and its chemical stability, wear resistance, water resistance and other characteristics of a good, and inexpensive, play a role in skeleton in the paint. By increasing the thickness of the coating is filled to improve the mechanical properties of the coating, and can play durable, corrosion resistant, heat insulation, matting and so on. On the other hand it as a way of reducing the manufacturing cost of paint, using its low cost, the price is far lower than the color pigments; hiding under the premise of the film meet, appropriately added to supplement the extender pigment in paint color pigments should some volume.

 

Pellet Chips Metal Balls
Contact Us:

Please feel free to send us your requirement about our products
sales@nanoshel.com
contact@nanoshel.com
+1 646 470 4911 (US)
+36 30 4750555 (EU)
+91-9779880077 (India)



CuO Dispersion (Copper Oxide Dispersion)

CuO DISPERSION

CuO Dispersion: Nanodispersion are composites consisting of solid nanoparticles with sizes varying generally from 1 to 100 nm dispersed in heat transfer liquids such as water, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and so on. In the last decade, nanofluids have gained significant attention due to their enhanced thermal properties. A great deal of energy is expended heating industrial and residential buildings in the cold regions of the world.

Cupric oxide (CuO) has been studied as a p-type semiconductor material with narrow band gap because of the natural abundance of its starting material, low cost production processing, nontoxic nature, and its reasonably good electrical and optical properties. CuO dispersions are of great interest due to its potential applications in a wide variety of areas including electronic and optoelectronic devices, such as microelectromechanical systems, field effect transistors, electrochemical cells, gas sensors, magnetic storage media, solar cells, field emitters, and nanodevices for catalysis. It has also been recently emphasized that apart from the size, the shape of the nanostructure is equally important for controlling different properties such as optical absorption in CuO nanostructures and the catalytic activities.

Follow us:

CuO Dispersion

Copper Oxide Dispersion

In addition to some shared properties of metal oxide nanodispersions, such as TiO2, ZnO, WO3, and SnO2, CuO Dispersion have other unique magnetic and super hydrophobic properties. Furthermore, these nanostructures show very promising applications in heterogeneous catalysis in the complete conversion of hydrocarbons into carbon dioxide, enhancement of thermal conductivity of nanofluids, nanoenergetic materials, and super-hydrophobic surfaces or anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs).

However, this material has not got attention of scientists at right level until recent years. Compared with other oxides of transition metal such as Fe2O3, TiO2, and ZnO only few reports have described the synthesis strategies adopted for CuO nanodispersions along with the introduction of their related applications.

 

Effect of Starting Materials

Solvent is one of the most important components of wet chemical methods as solvent has a crucial effect on the product. Due to the critical role of solvent, it is sometimes used to name a particular wet chemical approach, for example, alcohol-thermal synthesis or DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) route. Two primary criteria for the solvents used to synthesize CuO dispersion are as follows: (i) they dissolve copper and alkali hydroxide compounds and (ii) they can be washed away easily or decomposed during the washing and drying process without leaving any detrimental impurities or residues in the final nanoproduct. There are many secondary factors that great attention should be paid for the synthesis process such as viscosity, surface tension, volatility, reactivity, toxicity, and cost.

Salt and Alkali Metal Solution.

According to previous study, any kind of soluble copper salts could be used as precursor to prepare CuO nanodispersions without much difference or at least there seems to be no report on the influence of copper salt precursor. Various copper salts such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate, acetate were used to prepare CuO nanomaterials. However, particle size and uniformity of copper nanoparticles prepared from copper acetate seem better than those from inorganic copper salt. A reasonable explanation is that carboxylate groups are still adsorbed on the surface of the copper oxide nanoparticles and play the role of a surfactant and suppress nanoparticles from growth and aggregating process.

Field-Emission Properties of Copper Oxide Nanodispersion

Field emission, one of the most fascinating properties of nanostructured materials for the practical application in vacuum microelectronic devices such as field-emission displays, X-ray sources, and microwave devices, has been studied extensively in the past few decades. During this time, carbon-based materials, especially carbon nano-tubes, were studied as promising materials for field emitters due to their high mechanical stability, good conductivity, low turn-on field, and large emission currents. Importantly, it appeared that metal oxide nanostructures emitters, as compared to car-bon nanotubes emitters, are more stable in harsh environments and have controllable electrical properties.

Applications

CuO first attracted attention of chemists as a good catalyst in organic reactions but recently discovered applications of CuO such as high-Tc superconductors, gas sensors, solar cells, emitters, electronic cathode materials also make this material a hot topic for physicists and materials science engineers. Some of the most interesting applications of CuO nanomaterials are sensing, photo catalyst and super capacitor are as follows:

Sensing Applications: It is surface conductivity that makes CuO an ideal material for semiconductor resistive gas sensor applications and in fact CuO nanomaterials were used for detection of many different compounds such as CO, hydrogen cyanide, and glucose. As sensing properties closely relate to the chemical reaction on the surface of sensor, the specific area is a key factor to achieve high sensitivity sensor. Due to the high surface area/volume ratio, the sensing property of CuO Dispersion was enhanced greatly. The shape of CuO nanostructures was also believed to affect significantly the sensing properties of CuO nanomaterials; for example, spherical crystals often show higher sensitivity than columnar one.

Photo catalyst and Solar Energy Conversion: Water pollution due to organic wastage from industry production has become a serious problem in the world today. Most of organic compounds in waste water are toxic and cannot be decomposed naturally so they need to be treated with care before disposal. CuO is a promising candidate due to low cost and abundance As a p type semiconductor of narrow band gap in visible region, CuO is expected to be a good material for application in photo catalyst and solar energy conversion. However, some researchers reported that CuO shows almost no or very little photo catalyst properties under visible light. Adding some amount of H2O2 could help to greatly improve the photo catalyst efficiency under visible light.

 

Pellet Chips Metal Balls
Contact Us:

Please feel free to send us your requirement about our products
sales@nanoshel.com
contact@nanoshel.com
+1 646 470 4911 (US)
+36 30 4750555 (EU)
+91-9779880077 (India)



ZnO Dispersion (Zinc Oxide Dispersion)

ZnO DISPERSION

ZnO Dispersion: A stable colloidal dispersion is expected to remain without sedimentation even after prolonged periods of storage. The settling behavior of dispersions depends mainly on the size and density of the dispersed particles. Dispersion of nanopowders into liquids is a challenging task. The high surface area and surface energy which are responsible for the beneficial effects of Nanomaterials cause agglomeration of particles which leads to poor quality dispersions.

Stabilization of metal oxide nanoparticles are extensively studied over the past few years. As a promising semiconductor material, ZnO finds lot of applications in optoelectronic devices, photo catalysts, cosmetics, pigments, paints, ceramics, solar cells, varistors, sensors etc. The properties of ZnO can be tailor made by reducing the size, whereby the specific surface area gets increases which increases the chemical activity.

Zinc oxide in a dispersed form is used in a number of formulations which contain Water. Such formulations include sun screening preparations, cosmetics and veterinary products. The preparation of these formulations is greatly eased if the Zinc oxide is available in the form of an aqueous dispersion which can be readily incorporated into the formulation. However, stable dispersions of Zinc oxide are difficult to prepare and the Zinc oxide may dissolve at low or high pH values.

Follow us:

ZnO Dispersion

Zinc Oxide Dispersion

In particular, the unique properties and utility of nanoparticles also arise from a variety of attributes, including the similar size of nanoparticles and biomolecules such as proteins and polynucleic acids. Additionally, nanoparticles can be fashioned with a wide range of metals and semiconductor core materials that impart useful properties such as fluorescence and magnetic behavior. Moreover, unlike their bulk counterparts, nanoparticles have reduced size associated with high surface/volume ratios that increase as the nanoparticles size decreases. As the particle size decreases to some extent, a large number of constituting atoms can be found around the surface of the particles, which makes the particles highly reactive with prominent physical properties. Nanoparticles of particular materials have unique material properties, hence, manipulation and control of the material properties via mechanistic means is needed.

Dispersing property: Additives can improve the degree of zinc oxide dispersion in a given medium and prevent reagglomeration of the aggregates. A 1-3% addition (in reference to zinc oxide) of polyacrylic acid (sodium salt; MW 2100) performs well for dispersion stabilization in most aqueous systems.

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowders are available as powders and dispersions. These nanodispersions exhibit antibacterial, anti-corrosive, antifungal and UV filtering properties. Zinc is a Block D, Period 4 element while Oxygen is a Block P, Period 2 element. Some of the synonyms of zinc oxide nanoparticles dispersions are oxydatum, zinci oxicum, permanent white, ketozinc and oxozinc.

Applications of ZnO dispersion

The zinc oxide dispersions can be used as a UV-absorber, for catalytic applications, electronic applications, production of antifungal or antibacterial materials, sensors, actuators, photovoltaic devices, conductive coatings, among other applications.

  1. Rubber tires: zinc oxide dispersion for silicon rubber, boots, rubber gloves and other labor products, it can greatly extend the life of the products, and improve their appearance and color. It is irreplaceable in by other traditional carbon black surfactant in the use of clear or colored rubber products. Zinc oxide dispersion can also greatly improve products wear resistance and sealing effect.
  2. Paint coating: zinc oxide dispersion can make coating with UV shielding to absorb infrared rays and sterilization Antifungal and improve paint with stain resistance, resistance to artificial aging, water-alkali resistance, abrasion resistance, hardness and adhesion, and other traditional mechanical properties.
  3. Pottery field: ZnO dispersion sinters the temperature which can be reduced 40-60 centigrade in pottery field.
  4. Fiber and textile: ZnO dispersion effectively protects the fiber and clothes from the ultraviolet radiation and infrared ray.
  5. Sun proof cosmetic: Zinc Oxide is used in cosmetics primarily as a skin protectant and for UV attenuation. It is ideal for formulating mild or hnypoallergenic sun care products for UVA/UVB protection for babies and people with sensitive skin. Zinc Oxide is available in a wide range of primary particle sizes and varying optical properties. Notwithstanding, zinc oxide is not supplied as individual grains, but as aggregates of primary particles. The degree of aggregation is a function of the primary particle size and manufacturing process, similar to the case with TiO2. These large aggregates may reduce the protection of the formula against UV light, and likewise scatter visible light, increasing whitening when sun care products are applied on skin.

Pellet Chips Metal Balls
Contact Us:

Please feel free to send us your requirement about our products
sales@nanoshel.com
contact@nanoshel.com
+1 646 470 4911 (US)
+36 30 4750555 (EU)
+91-9779880077 (India)



Al2O3 Dispersion (Aluminium Oxide Dispersion)

Al2O3 DISPERSION

Al2O3 Dispersion: A wide usage of metal oxide nanoparticles and nano structured materials attracts many people to research for their controlled synthesis via new method. Because, special properties of metallic or metal oxide nanoparticles exhibited several potential application in electronics, optoelectronics, catalysis and thin film coatings. In particular, alumina nanoparticles are expected to play important roles in a variety of relevant applications, and hence, the field has generated important contributions regarding the synthesis and processing of such particles.

A suspension is a dispersion of solid particles in a liquid. A colloidal suspension is a sol having significant properties when the size of the particles is of the order of few nanometers or less. In the suspension of large particles, for example, 10 μm or larger, hydrodynamic interactions dominate the suspension flow properties and particle packing behavior. In colloidal suspensions, interaction forces between particles as well as hydrodynamic interactions play a vital role in determining the flow and particle packing properties.

Different synthesis methods have been devised, including sol-gel technique, microemulsion synthesis, mechanochemical processing, spray pyrolysis and drying, thermal decomposition of organic precursor, RF plasma synthesis, supercritical water processing, self assembling, hydrothermal processing, vapor transport process, sonochemical or microwave-assisted synthesis, direct precipitation and homogeneous precipitation. However, a disadvantage to fabrication of nanodevices is the agglomeration of nanoparticles, because of their high surface energy. To prevent the aggregation nanoparticles, the surface modification of nanoparticles can ensure their perfect dispersion. Many studies have been carried out toward the organically. Nanoparticles to enhance the surface chemical and physical properties play the key for their successful applications.

 

Follow us:

Al2O3 Dispersion

Aluminium Oxide Dispersion

Aluminium oxide is one of the most versatile sorbents for preparative chromatography. Due to its amphoteric character, aluminium oxide can be used in specifically defined pH ranges. Al2O3 Dispersion s are widely used for preparative column chromatographic separations, isolation and purifications for both in laboratory and industrial production.

 

Aluminium Oxide Nanoparticles Aqueous Dispersion Application

Al2O3 nanoparticles water dispersion with phase stability, high hardness, and good dimensional stability, it can be widely used in plastics, rubber, ceramics, refractory products. In particular, it can significantly improve ceramics density, smoothness, thermal fatigue resistance, fracture toughness, creep resistance and polymer products wear resistance. Also, Al2O3 nanoparticles water dispersion is a promising material of far infrared emission, as the far-infrared emission and thermal insulation materials are used in chemical fiber products and high-pressure sodium lamp. In addition, αlpha Al2O3 nanoparticles water dispersion has a good insulation properties, it can be used in YGA laser crystal and integrate circuit base board. 1. transparent ceramics: high-pressure sodium lamps, EP-ROM window; 2. cosmetic filler; 3. single crystal, ruby, sapphire, sapphire, yttrium aluminum garnet; 4. high-strength aluminum oxide ceramic, C substrate, packaging materials, cutting tools, high purity crucible, winding axle, bombarding the target, furnace tubes; 5.  polishing materials, glass products, metal products, semiconductor materials, plastic, tape, grinding belt; 6.  paint, rubber, plastic wear-resistant reinforcement, advanced waterproof material; 7.  vapor deposition materials, fluorescent materials, special glass, composite materials and resins; 8. catalyst, catalyst carrier, analytical reagent; 9. aerospace aircraft wing leading edge

 

Al2O3 Dispersion
Contact Us:

Please feel free to send us your requirement about our products
sales@nanoshel.com
contact@nanoshel.com
+1 646 470 4911 (US)
+36 30 4750555 (EU)
+91-9779880077 (India)



Quantum Dots

QUANTUM DOTS AND ITS APPLICATIONS

A quantum dot gets its name because it’s a tiny speck of matter so small that it’s effectively concentrated into a single point (in other words, it’s zero-dimensional). As a result, the particles inside it that carry electricity (electrons and holes, which are places that are missing electrons) are trapped (“constrained”) and have well-defined energy levels according to the laws of quantum theory (think rungs on a ladder), a bit like individual atoms. Tiny really does mean tiny: quantum dots are crystals a few nanometers wide, so they’re typically a few dozen atoms across and contain anything from perhaps a hundred to a few thousand atoms. They’re made from a semiconductor such as silicon (a material that’s neither really a conductor nor an insulator, but can be chemically treated so it behaves like either). And although they’re crystals, they behave more like individual atoms hence the nickname artificial atoms.

Quantum dots were discovered in the 80’s but commercialization has initially been slow. Interest in quantum dots peaked in the early 2000’s when nanotechnology was still a favorite keyword amongst investors. However, a lack of products meant that quantum dots were mostly used in research labs.

In the last three years, quantum dots have been back in the spotlight with the promise to make LCD screens more colorful and more energy efficient. Sony was the first to commercialize a quantum dot LCD TV in 2013 and there are now several OEMs (including Samsung) offering TVs with quantum dots.

As a type of semiconductor, quantum dot exhibit a photoluminescence which is particularly useful for improving colors in LCD. But quantum dots can also be used as electroluminescent materials: quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLED) have been in development for several years and they have a great potential for display applications. Quantum dots are also emerging as a promising material for other type of devices, most notably optical and infrared sensors.

These tiny nanoparticles have diameters which range from 2 nanometers to 10 nanometers, with their electronic characteristics depending on their size and shape. Nanoshel are able to accurately control the size of a quantum dot and as a result they are able ‘tune’ the wavelength of the emitted light to a specific colour.

Follow us:

Quantum Dots

Quantum Dots

Quantum dot find applications in a number of areas such as solar cells, transistors, LEDs, medical imaging and quantum computing, thanks to their unique electronic properties. Nanoshel deals with the quantum dots such as

  • CdTe quantum dots, powder, hydrophilic – CdTe quantum dots exhibit the broadest wavelength emission spectra range between 510 nm and up to 780 nm. It is easy to form colloidal solutions of them in water and terminate them with -COOH group. It is possible to couple -NH2 groups with them through EDC-mediated esterification. They are suitable for biologic labeling purposes.
  • CdSe/ZnS (core/shell) quantum dot, powder, hydrophobic – CdSe/ZnS quantum dots are core-shell structured inorganic nanocrystals wherein an outer core of wider band gap ZnS encapsulates an inner core of CdSe. They are highly luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals coated with hydrophobic organic molecules. They are insoluble in ethers, alcohols and water, but soluble in pyridine, tetrahydrofuran, chloroform, toluene, heptanes, and hexane. The wavelength emission spectra range between 530 and 650 nm.
  • ZnCdSe/ZnS (core/shell) quantum dots, powder, hydrophobic – ZnCdSe/ZnS quantum dots have the smallest available average particle size. Thus, they can emit the bluest to white light, making them suitable for use in solid state luminescent devices. Wavelengths range from 440 to 480 nm. They are highly luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals coated with hydrophobic organic molecules. They are soluble in pyridine, tetrahydrofuran, chloroform, toluene, heptanes, and hexane, but insoluble in ethers, alcohols and water.

Applications of Quantum Dots

Light Emitting Diodes

Quantum dot light emitting diodes (QD-LED) and ‘QD-White LED’ are very useful when producing the displays for electronic devices due to the fact that they emit light in highly specific Gaussian distributions. QD-LED displays can render colors very accurately and use much less power than traditional displays

Photo detectors

Quantum dot photo detectors (QDPs) can be produced from traditional single-crystalline semiconductors or solution-processed. Solution-processed QDPs are ideal for the integration of several substrates and for use in integrated circuits. These colloidal QDPs find use in machine vision, surveillance, spectroscopy, and industrial inspection.

Photovoltaic’s

Quantum dot solar cells are much more efficient and cost-effective when compared to their silicon solar cells counterparts. Quantum dot solar cells can be produced using simple chemical reactions and can help to save manufacturing costs as a result.

Biological Applications

The latest generation of quantum dots has great potential for use in biological analysis applications. They are widely used to study intracellular processes, tumour targeting, in vivo observation of cell trafficking, diagnostics and cellular imaging at high resolutions.

Quantum dots have been proved to be far superior to conventional organic dyes as a result of their high quantum yield, photo stability and tunable emission spectrum. They are 100 times more stable and 20 times brighter than traditional fluorescent dyes.

The extraordinary photo stability exhibited by quantum dots make them ideal for use in ultra-sensitive cellular imaging. This allows several consecutive focal-plane images to be reassembled into three-dimensional images at very high resolution.

Quantum dot can target specific cells or proteins using peptides, antibodies or ligands and then observed in order to study the target protein or the behavior of the cells. Researchers have found out that quantum dots are far better at delivering the siRNA gene-silencing tool to target cells than currently used methods.

Pellet Chips Metal Balls
Contact Us:

Please feel free to send us your requirement about our products
sales@nanoshel.com
contact@nanoshel.com
+1 646 470 4911 (US)
+36 30 4750555 (EU)
+91-9779880077 (India)