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Tin Nanoparticle: Nanoparticles research is rapidly growing into an extensive research area. This is due to the fact that nanoparticles can be easily altered by varying their chemical environment, shape and size. One of the key benefits of nanoparticles is that their properties differ from bulk material of the same composition.
Tin Nanoparticle is a malleable post-transition metal that is not easily oxidized in air. It can be coated onto other metals to prevent corrosion. Tin nanoparticles (Sn) have high surface activity, large specific surface area, good dispersion performance and uniform particle size. Tin nanoparticles dispersed in lubricating oil can be used as multi-purpose oil additives, which have the potential to reduce friction and wear in automobile engines.
Nanostructured materials exhibit many properties, such as grain size, large surface areas, homogeneity and highly reactive surfaces, that have attracted attention because of the various resulting applications and theoretical studies. The properties of nanostructured materials are determined not only by the cluster size but also by the manner in which they are organized. The way that nanoclusters form nanostructures depends not only on the separation and the properties of inter-cluster interaction but also on the preparation method used. To obtain metallic nanoparticles like tin nanoparticles and some oxides, many techniques have been used, such as sol-gel, pulsed laser deposition, mechanochemical, wet-chemical synthesis, chemical reduction method, chemical liquid deposition (CLD), electrochemical, thermal decomposition, microwave irradiation, metal vapor deposition, and sonochemical techniques.
Tin Nanoparticle: are synthesized by chemical reduction method. This method is more suitable for the Sn nanoparticles synthesis because the chemical reduction can use a low temperature, resulting in a better control of thermal oxidation of Sn nanoparticles.
|Molar Mass||118.69 g/mol|
|Melting point||2602 ° C|
|Boiling point||2602 ° C|
Tin Nanopowder , a member of group IV of the periodic table, has the unusually low melting point and the unusually high boiling point. This great liquid range makes it easy to form alloys of Sn without loss by vaporization. At room temperature and normal pressure, tin exists in two allotropes: One is nonmetallic ?-Sn which is stable at temperature below 13.2 ?C. The other is metallic ?-Sn which exists between 13.2 ?C to 161 ?C. ?-Sn slowly converts to ?-Sn at temperature less than 13.2 ?C. This transformation was known as “Tin disease” or “Tin pest”. When the temperature is above 13.2 ?C, ?-Sn can also slowly convert to ?-Sn.
Tin nanoparticles are considered to be non-toxic and are therefore used for food packaging, such as tin cans. Typically, tin has a low melting point and a readiness to form alloys with other metal such as lead and bismuth. It is an important material in solder alloys. It is also used in transparent ant-static films, Anti-microbial, antibiotics and anti-fungal agents. Tin nanoparticles are mostly used in Coatings, plastics, nanofibres, bandages and textiles.
Lithium Ion Battery
Nanosized tin particles possess distinct properties compared with the bulk tin which have stimulated considerable interest in scientific research and technological applications. It is known that lithium ion battery performance can be enhanced by incorporating tin nanoparticles in the anode electrode, owing to the increase in interfacial area and decrease in lithium ion transport path length. The melting point of tin can decrease dramatically with particle size reduction to several nanometers owing to its enhanced surface area to volume ratio. The decreased melting point of tin nanosolder is highly desirable for preventing damage to electronic devices, caused by high reflow temperatures. Moreover, the low melting point metal nanoparticles have also been considered as a catalyst for the growth of semiconductor nanowires via solution liquid solid (SLS) mechanism, which is where the interest of this research lies.
Bandages and Textiles