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Tin Oxide Dispersions: The dispersion is a system in which the particles are dispersed in a continuous phase of different composition or state. Nanopowder is the solid form of nanoparticles, which are usually, contains the nano sized agglomerate. These agglomerates can be re-dispersed using various methods like ultrasonication, stirring etc.
Tin Oxide Dispersion
Tin oxide is a wide band gap n-type semiconductor with many potential applications such as catalysts for oxidation of organics, gas sensors, electrodes in solid-state ionic devices, molecular sieves, and solar cells due to its being chemically inert, mechanically hard, and thermally heat-resistant. The success in many of its technological applications depends on crystalline SnO2 with a uniform nanosized pore structure.
Tin oxide is used widely to control air pollution and to detect toxic or smelling gases at low levels in the air and in the field of domestic and industrial applications. As the size of the particle decreases, the surface to volume ratio increases, this increases the number of oxygen sites on the surfaces in these reducing gas species and the sensitivity of nanocrystalline tin oxide.
As for most natural materials, the size of SnO2 dispersions particles varies within 1-80 nm of length and 10-100 nm of inner diameter, depending on the deposits. This material has an average diameter of 50 nm.
SnO2 can be synthesized using a variety of techniques such as sol-gel, hydrothermal method, precipitation, carbothermal reduction, and polymeric precursor. The hydrothermal method is one of the best methods to produce fine oxide powders due to its simplicity, efficiency, and environmental friendliness. It is known that well dispersed particles have larger surface areas and smaller particle sizes, which are desired to increase the reaction sites. One of the effective methods for obtaining well dispersed and homogeneous particles is to re-crystallize them under hydrothermal treatment.
Chemically, the properties of Tin oxide dispersions are nearly similar to the tin oxide powder. When the powder is getting dispersed into any organic solvent to form dispersion, the sizes of particles become smaller. The morphology of this dispersion is spherical as shown in figure. The zeta size or average particle size of tin oxide dispersion is 20-80 nm. It is acidic in nature i.e. pH lies between 4-5. A wide range of organic solvents are used including DMF, Ethanol, methanol, IPA and water to form dispersions.
We foresee a great deal of fundamental research and many applications employing tin oxide dispersion in various sensing applications like in gas sensors, pressure sensors etc. Thin films of tin oxide dispersion are also used in the dye sensitive solar cells. It is expected that highly crystalline particles, with an average diameter of less than 10 nm, will sinter at lower temperatures, and thus, allow broader application to complex geometries, heat-sensitive materials, and flexible substrates. Also used as catalysts, energy-saving coatings and anti-static coatings, in the making of optoelectronic devices and resistors. SnO2 layers have been used as transparent and electrically conducting coatings on glass. These films have a high mechanical and chemical stability.