Home» Tin Oxide Nanoparticles Application
Tin Oxide Nanoparticles Application: Nanostructure metal oxides have attracted a lot of attention due to their technological applications and outstanding properties. The magnetic, optical, catalytic and electronic properties of nanomaterials depend strongly on size, structure and shape of nanoparticles. Another reason for attraction of scientists’ attention towards nano size particles is that, they behave differently from bulk materials. With decreasing particle size the band structure of the semiconductors changes. The band gap increases and band edges splits into decrease energy levels.
Tin Oxide Nanoparticles Application
Recent research, on tin oxide semiconductor has been growing due to the wide range of its applications including gas sensors, transistors, electrodes, liquid crystal displays, catalysts, photovoltaic devices, photo sensors, antistatic coating etc. Tin oxide is one of the most important materials due to its high degree of transparency in the visible spectrum, strong physical and chemical interaction with adsorbed species, low operating temperature and strong thermal stability in air up to 5000 °C. Tin occurs in two oxidation states +2 and +4, therefore two types of oxides are possible i.e. stannous oxide (SnO) and stannic oxide (SnO2). Among these two oxides, SnO2 is more stable than SnO.
SnO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized by varies methods like Sol Gel, Micro Wave technique, Solvo-thermal, Hydro thermal, Sonochemical, Mechanochemical, Co-precipitation etc. The highly pure and crystalline nanoparticles of SnO2 have been synthesized using Co-precipitation method. This Co-precipitation method is simple, inexpensive and does not require high temperature and pressure. Here the size and shape of the particle can be controlled by altering pH of the medium, concentration of the precursor and precipitating reagents. Impurities in the precipitate are easily eliminated by filtration and repeated washing.
After some time the particles undergo aggregation. The degree of aggregation depends on the nature of the particles and the conditions during their synthesis. To avoid aggregation of the particles and to reduce the size of the particles, some organic surfactants are used during the precipitation. Use of surfactants will help in tailoring the size and shape of the nanoparticles and to hinder the aggregation. Using Co -precipitation method and using surfactants, SnO2 nanoparticles can be synthesized with the size ranging between 5nm and 23nm.
|Molar Mass||150.71 g/mol|
|Melting point||1630 °C|
|Boiling point||1900 °C|
|Electronic config||Tin [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2 Oxygen [He] 2s2 2p4|
Basically the structural properties of any material can be characterized by XRD i.e. X-ray diffraction. The structural identification of Tin oxide nanoparticles is carried out by XRD in the range of angle 2 ? between 20 ° to 70 °. SnO2 nanoparticles are crystalline in nature and the size is very small which is calculated to be 36 nm (approx).
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used for the morphological study of SnO2 Nanoparticles. Spherical morphology with a highly porous, foam-like structure can be observed by SEM. Optical absorption measurement was carried out on SnO2 nanoparticles. The optical absorption coefficient has been calculated in the wavelength range of 300 – 800 nm. The absorption edge is obtained at a shorter wavelength. The broadening of the absorption spectrum could be due to the quantum confinement of the nanoparticles. The SnO2 nanoparticles have good crystalline structure and show strong blue emission, promising for applications in optical devices. UV absorption spectrum of SnO2 nanoparticles shows it absorbance edge is observed at 315 nm.
The dielectric studies show the effects of temperature and frequency on the conduction phenomenon in nanostructured materials. Dielectric behavior can effectively be used to study the electrical properties of the grain boundaries. The dielectric properties of materials are mainly due to contributions from the electronic, ionic, dipolar and space charge polarizations. Among these, the electronic polarization, present in the optical range of frequencies form the most important contribution to the polycrystalline materials in bulk form. Space charge polarization arises from molecules having a permanent dipole moment that can change its orientation when an electric field is applied. The dielectric parameters, like the dielectric constant (?r) and dielectric loss are the basic electrical properties of the SnO2 nanoparticles. The measurement of the dielectric constant and loss as a function of frequency and different temperatures reveals the electrical processes that take place in SnO2 Nanoparticles.
Tin Oxide Nanoparticles Application
Because of the Magnetic properties of tin oxide nanoparticles are used in magnetic data storage and magnetic resonance imaging.
Tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles, as one of the most important semiconductor oxides, has been used as photo catalyst for photo degradation of organic compounds.
Also used as catalysts, energy-saving coatings and anti-static coatings, in the making of optoelectronic devices and resistors. SnO2 layers have been used as transparent and electrically conducting coatings on glass. These films have a high mechanical and chemical stability.
Due to the mechanical stability of the SnO2 they are used in hot end coatings on bottles. Tin oxide nanoparticles has very good transparent mirror properties, due to this property they are used as electrodes and anti-reflection coatings in solar cells, as heat shields in electronic devices, in thermal insulation, in solar head collectors, in photovoltaic cells, in double glazing lamps.
Tin oxide nanoparticles are widely used in sensing applications due to its semi conductor properties like in smoke sensors, humidity sensors, gas sensors etc. The transparent electrical conduction property of tin oxide nanoparticles are mostly used in transparent ovens and in liquid crystal displays.