Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles
Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles research presents wide scope for the development of novel solutions in the field of healthcare, cosmetics, optics and electronics. Altering their molecular and atomic states results in unexpected outcomes, which may not be possible by using the materials in their original states. This article deals with the properties and applications of titanium oxide nanoparticles.
TiO2 is available in the form of nanocrystals or nanodots having a high surface area. They exhibit magnetic properties. Titanium belongs to Block D, Period 4 while oxygen belongs to Block P, Period 2 of the periodic table. Titanium oxide is also known as flamenco, rutile, titanium dioxide and dioxotitanium. Titanium Dioxide nanoparticles are known for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and prevent further formation of cell structures.
Nanoscale TiO2 that is manufactured for specific applications is by approximately a factor of 100 finer than the TiO2 pigments and has other physical properties. The production volume of nanoscale Titanium oxide amounts to less than 1 percent that of TiO2 pigments. Nanoscale titanium oxides are not used as food additives. Currently, they are mainly found in high-factor sun protection creams, textile fibers or wood preservatives. For a long time, sun creams have been manufactured adding titanium oxide micro particles that gave the products a pasty, sticky consistency. Leaving a visible film, application of such sun creams was not easy and not pleasing to the skin.
Sun creams that contain the transparent nanoscale TiO2 can be applied much more easily. In addition, their protective effect against harmful UV radiation is much better. At present, high sun protection factors can only be achieved using nanoscale TiO2. In recent years, metal oxide nanoparticles have attracted much attention by their potential application in diverse fields including catalysis, magnetic recording media, microelectronics and medicine. For example, TiO2 nanoparticles are very important due to their various applications like removing the environmental pollution, sterilization and restraining virus, defending UV, keep rust away, and de-pigment.
TiO2 is a multifaceted compound. TiO2 is also a potent photo catalyst that can break down almost any organic compound when exposed to sunlight, and a number of companies are seeking to capitalize on titanium oxide’s reactivity by developing a wide range of environmentally beneficial products, including self-cleaning fabrics, auto body finishes, and ceramic tiles. Also one development is a paving stone that uses the catalytic properties of TiO2 to remove nitrogen oxide from the air, breaking it down into more environmentally benign substances that can then be washed away by rainfall.
Properties of Titanium Dioxide:
Titanium dioxide mostly occurs together with other types of rock, thus must be separated from these. Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is one of the most well-known minerals. Different methods are used for refinement.
TiO2 is a highly insoluble thermally stable. Titanium source suitable for glass, optic and ceramic applications. Oxide compounds are not conductive to electricity. However, certain perovskite structured oxides are electronically conductive finding application in the cathode of solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen generation systems. They are compounds containing at least one oxygen anion and one metallic cation. They are typically insoluble in aqueous solutions (water) and extremely stable making them useful in ceramic structures as simple as producing clay bowls to advanced electronics in light weight structural components in aerospace and electrochemical applications such as fuel cells in which they exhibit ionic conductivity. Metal oxide compounds are basic anhydrides and can therefore react with acids as well as with strong reducing agents in redox reactions.
|Molar Mass||79.9378 g/mol|
|Melting Point||1843 ° C|
|Boiling Point||2972 ° C|
|Electronic config.||Titanium [Ar] 3d24s2
Oxygen [He] 2s22p4
The great versatility of titanium dioxide is owing to its various forms and sizes. These oxides may be used in the form of micro scale pigments or as nano-objects. Their crystal structures may vary depending on the arrangement of TiO2 atoms, one differentiates between rutile and anatase modifications.
TiO2 is mostly used as white pigment because of its high diffraction index, strong light scattering, incident-light reflection capability and a high UV resistance that make TiO2 the standard pigment found in white dispersion paints with high hiding power. Since light scattering does not occur anymore in nanoscale particles, the white TiO2 pigments used are almost exclusively rutile modification particles with grain sizes in the micrometer range. These white pigments are not only found in paints and dyes but also in varnishes, plastics, paper and textiles.
Applications of Titanium Dioxide:
TiO2 involve removing the ripening hormone ethylene from areas where perishable fruits, vegetables, and cut flowers are stored. Also titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used for stripping organic pollutants such as trichloroethylene and methyl-tert-butyl ether from water and degrading toxins produced by blue green algae.
TiO2 is a well-known photo catalyst for water and air treatment as well as for catalytic production of gases. The general scheme for the photo catalytic destruction of organics begins with its excitation by supra band-gap photons and continues through redox reactions where OH-radicals, formed on the photo catalyst surface play a major role.
TiO2 is non-toxic and therefore is used in cosmetic products (sunscreens, lipsticks, body powder, soap, pearl essence pigments and tooth pastes) and also in special pharmaceutics. TiO2 is even used in food stuffs. TiO2 photo catalytic characteristics are greatly enhanced due to the advent of nanotechnology.
Photo catalytic Applications: Photo catalysis refers to the chemical reaction that occurs when light strikes a chemical compound that is light sensitive. When light strikes TiO2, a chemical reaction repeated in the immediate region and causes the breakdown of organic toxins, odors and more.
Environmental improvement applications: TiO2 remove environmental pollution substances, such as NOx emitted by exhaust gas etc. from the atmosphere.
Pharmaceutical applications: Sterilization, restraining virus, TiO2 photo catalyst can destroy the membrane of cells, solid the proteins of viruses, restrain the virus activation and catching them. It kills bacteria’s up to 99.97%. TiO2 can kill coliform, green suppuration bacillus, golden grape coccus, mildew and suppuration fungus etc. The ability of sterilization can be tested through coliform and golden grape coccus.
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